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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:42

Video transcript

in this video I'm going to talk about the subcortical cerebrum subcortical cerebrum so the deep part of the cerebrum we looked deep inside subcortical cerebrum so recall that the cerebrum is the top part of the brain here and inside the cerebrum we have both gray and white matter and have a few different illustrations here and there are some gray matter nuclei and white matter and then the entire cerebrum is covered with gray matter that we call cerebral cortex and these deep structures like this deep white matter in these deep gray matter nuclei we call subcortical because they're deep to the cerebral cortex they're beneath the cerebral cortex so I've got three very nice illustrations here to point out some of the structures that are subcortical structures of the cerebrum so to orient you this illustration right here is looking from the front just like my outline over here so let me just draw an arrow over here that we're looking from the front and we've cut down into the brains we're looking into the brain tissue and in this illustration there's this view from the front is cut at one level here and it's cut a little farther back over on this side and then over here in this illustration we're actually looking down from the top so this is like if we've cut across the cerebrum like this kind of horizontally through the cerebrum and then we're looking down on it from the top so this is a top-down view that's this guy over here or something just label that top and this one right here we've actually cut down the middle so we've cut down if we're looking from the front here we've cut right down and we're separating the right and left the right cerebral hemisphere from the left cerebral hemisphere and in this view we're actually looking at it from the right so we're looking at the middle from the from the right side right so let me just write that here as well just right we're looking from the right side at the middle of the cerebrum if we've divided the right and the left half we're actually looking at the right side of the left cerebral hemisphere so as you can see from these illustrations there's a lot of white matter deep in the cerebrum and this cerebral hemisphere ik white matter contains myelinated axons projecting to or from the cerebral cortex here on the outside of the cerebrum and to and from these subcortical structures like these gray nuclei deep in the cerebrum and or to and from the brain stem so here we're seeing the brainstem down here and all this white matter is connected and there's lots of names for different areas of this white matter and I'll just mention a couple of them one important subcortical white matter structure deep in the cerebrum is this one right here let me color this in this band of white matter that's going deep in the cerebrum between some of these gray matter nuclei that are deep in the cerebrum and the name of this subcortical band of white matter is called the internal capsule I'll write that right here internal capsule internal capsule and if we look at it on this illustration that's a top-down view they've actually colored it in on this side see and tried to show how these axons are kind of coursing out and connecting different areas of the cerebrum let me just color that in it's this part right here and on these top-down views it kind of makes this v-shape it's kind of shaped like the letter V and it separates some of these subcortical gray matter nuclei and the internal capsule contains a number of important pathways for information traveling around the central nervous system including quite importantly the corticospinal tract that contained the upper motor neurons passes through the internal capsule several white matter structures connect the two cerebral hemispheres and I'll just mention the biggest one which is right here it's a big band of white matter connecting the right and the left cerebral hemisphere and you can see it over here just part of it and this in this top-down view as well and then when we're looking at this view where we've split the two cerebral hemispheres it's this big band of white matter right here let me just color this in and this important connection between the right and the left cerebral hemispheres is called the corpus callosum corpus callosum and there are some other connections but this is the biggest and the most important one that allows information to travel from from one cerebral Hemisphere over the other cerebral hemisphere and vice several subcortical nuclei function as a unit and so they're collectively called the basal ganglia basal ganglia and if we're looking from the front these nuclei right here are part of the basal ganglia as is this one right over here and if we're looking from the top the B's nuclei right here part of the basal ganglia as is this one and there are some others as well that aren't aren't on these illustrations but even though they're anatomically separated by white matter like the internal capsule here they kind of function as a unit so they're collectively called the basal ganglia and the basal ganglia play a major role in motor functions they don't have upper motor neurons themselves but they help out the motor areas of the cerebral cortex to perform proper movements and some parts of the basal ganglia also contribute to cognition and emotion so there's some cognitive and emotional functions that the basal ganglia also contribute to in addition to their major role in in motor functions another group of subpart achill cerebral nuclei are collectively called the thalamus and the thalamus is also sometimes called the diencephalon diencephalon which is the name of the embryonic structure that it develops from so you might hear people using either named thalamus or diencephalon and on this top-down view all of these nuclei this collection of nuclei right here are the thalamus and if we look between the two hemispheres the thalamus is right around here it's just kind of underneath this part of the brain right here the thalamus plays a very important role in sensory functions because almost all of the senses have pathways that travel to the thalamus and there's sensory processing that occurs in the thalamus and then they pass through the thalamus on the way to areas of the cerebral cortex involved in those doing more processing of those senses but the thalamus is also very important for all of the higher functions of the brain including cognition emotion and consciousness because the thalamus is connected to many many brain areas and it plays a role in processing and passing information around from different areas of the cerebral cortex and other subcortical structures and the last collection of nuclei that I'll mention although there are many more is a group of nuclei that we collectively called a hypothalamus hypothalamus and it's called hypothalamus because it's right below the thalamus so that thalamus is around here and then this area right here is the hypothalamus and if we're looking at some of these other views like this top-down view some of this would be part of the hypothalamus because here they've drawn that they've cut deeper on to this side so we're below the thalamus over here and the hypothalamus is connected to and controls this structure right here which is called the pituitary gland I'll just circle that right there and the pituitary is the master gland that plays a huge role in controlling all the other glands in the body and our system of glands we call the endocrine system so the hypothalamus plays a major role in controlling and interacting with the endocrine system and is really the link between the nervous system and the endocrine system but in addition to this like the thalamus the hypothalamus is connected to many brain areas and plays a role in many of the higher functions of the brain as well including cognition emotion and consciousness and there are other subcortical nuclei that also have extensive interconnections with all sorts of different areas in the brain and are involved in many of the lower and higher functions of the brain but I'll stop here because I just want to introduce these structures that are deep down in the cerebrum which we call subcortical so that you can see kind of where they stand in relation to the cerebral cortex on the outside of the cerebrum and the brainstem below the cerebrum