The rise of Islamic empires and states
- Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries.
- Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time.
- Most of the significant expansion occurred during the reign of the Rashidun from 632 to 661 CE, which was the reign of the first four successors of Muhammad.
- The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.