- Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement
- African American veterans and the Civil Rights Movement
- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
- Emmett Till
- The Montgomery Bus Boycott
- "Massive Resistance" and the Little Rock Nine
- The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
- The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
- SNCC and CORE
- Black Power
- The Civil Rights Movement
Learn about Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam, and the Black Panther Party.
- “Black Power” refers to a militant ideology that aimed not at integration and accommodation with white America, but rather preached black self-reliance, self-defense, and racial pride.
- Malcolm X was the most influential thinker of what became known as the Black Power movement, and inspired others like Stokely Carmichael of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale of the Black Panther Party.
- The Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, operated as both a black self-defense militia and a provider of services to the black community.
The origins of Black Power
Though the actual phrase “Black Power” did not come into widespread usage until 1966, the ideas underlying Black Power were not new. As early as the 1940s, A. Philip Randolph, an African American labor activist, called for a march on Washington to pressure President Franklin D. Roosevelt to outlaw racial discrimination in federal employment. Randolph envisioned the march as “an all-Negro movement” that would inculcate “a sense of self-reliance” and “break down the slave psychology and inferiority-complex in Negroes which comes and is nourished with Negroes relying on white people for direction and support.” Though Randolph himself eschewed black nationalism, the goals of self-reliance and racial pride would become key components of the Black Power ideology.
The author Richard Wright had also published a book called Black Power in 1954, a non-fiction chronicle of his travels to Africa’s Gold Coast, the country that would become Ghana. Wright’s journeys underscore the significance of ties between Africans and African Americans and the centrality of decolonization in black power ideology. In the 1950s and 1960s, African countries were becoming independent after decades of European colonial rule. African American thinkers like Richard Wright and later, Malcolm X, drew a connection between the struggles of Africans to overthrow the remaining vestiges of colonial oppression and the struggles of African Americans to overcome the white power structure in the United States.
Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam
Led by Elijah Muhammad, born Elijah Poole, the Nation of Islam, also known as the Black Muslims, had existed since the 1930s. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, became acquainted with Elijah Muhammad and the teachings of the Nation of Islam while serving time for burglary at the Norfolk Prison Colony in Massachusetts. After the expiration of his parole, he became involved with the Nation of Islam, serving as its emissary on a visit to the Middle East and Africa in 1959, and becoming the minister of Mosque No. 7 in Harlem. Malcolm X’s fiery rhetoric and charismatic presence gained the Nation of Islam many new adherents in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Nation of Islam advocated black self-empowerment and self-reliance, as well as cultural and racial pride. The most famous Black Muslim was undoubtedly the heavyweight boxer Cassius Clay, who changed his name to Muhammad Ali after converting.
In 1964, Malcolm X again traveled to the Middle East and Africa, and made his Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage) to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Upon his return to the United States, he publicly repudiated the Nation of Islam and the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, choosing instead to adhere to a more conventional version of Sunni Islam. He founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity, which embraced the internationalization of the black freedom struggle and continued to emphasize black self-determination and self-defense. On February 21, 1965, after months of receiving death threats, Malcolm X was assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan by members of the Nation of Islam. His autobiography was published shortly after his death and quickly became a bestseller.
The Black Panther Party
In June 1966, Stokely Carmichael of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee shouted the words “black power” in an address to a freedom rally in Greenwood, Mississippi. The incident reflected the increased militancy of groups like SNCC and CORE, which had previously adhered to nonviolent civil disobedience. The Black Panther Party of Self-Defense was founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale, who issued a ten-point program demanding, among other things, freedom, employment, and an immediate end to police brutality.
The Black Panthers gained notoriety when in the spring of 1967, its gun-toting members staged a protest at the state capitol against a gun control bill then being debated by the California state legislature. The Black Panthers espoused a militant form of black self-defense and functioned as a local militia, taking advantage of open-carry gun laws to patrol black neighborhoods in Oakland in order to prevent police harassment and brutality. The Panthers also provided community services, such as free breakfasts for children, drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, self-defense classes, and free medical clinics and childcare centers. Largely due to the Panthers’ militant rhetoric and armed self-defense, the state of California imposed strictures on open-carry gun laws, and the FBI employed its counter-intelligence program (COINTELPRO) to combat what it perceived as the Black Panther Party’s subversive threat to American democracy.
What do you think?
Was Black Power part of the Civil Rights Movement or was it opposed to the Civil Rights Movement?
How did the goals of the Black Power movement differ from those of more mainstream civil rights activists? Compare the major demands of the Ten-Point Program with the goals of civil rights campaigns for voting rights and desegregation.
Why do you think the ideas of Black Power gained in popularity over the course of the 1960s?
Want to join the conversation?
- did whites ever step in or stand beside black people when they were taking action(4 votes)
- thank god for everthing the black panthers did but i think there were i little dangerous(4 votes)
- Yes. They were dangerous, then driven to become more dangerous because they were not listened to. I hope we have learned better how to listen since then.(4 votes)
- Why was Malcolm x violent ?(3 votes)
- what does the black panther has anything to do with the civil rights movement(1 vote)
- Why did malcolm x change his name(2 votes)
- Slave “owners” would often give their own last names to the people they enslaved. These often got passed down as African Americans’ last names. Changing his last name severed that tie to those people who’d abused his ancestors and others.(3 votes)
- How or why did the black power gain popularity over the course of 1960?(2 votes)
- Black people had been abused in much of the USA for generations. Things like the great migration, in which black people moved out of oppressive situations in the South to slightly less oppressive situations in the North, the Second World War, which drew young black men from the entire nation to serve in the military, creating new networks, the Post-war GI Bill which offered training and higher education benefits unlinkde to race, and the civil rights movement which encouraged people to assert what rights they had and to agitate for equality, fed the black power movement.(3 votes)
- Was Black Power part of the Civil Rights Movement or was it opposed to the Civil Rights Movement?(3 votes)
- Black Power was part of the movement for Civil Rights, since it was driving for civil rights. The desire was for civil rights for blacks, but it had a different idea on how to get there.(0 votes)
- What helped contribute to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965?(2 votes)
- Nothing happens just by itself or for one reason.
The example of clergy, particularly African-American Protestant clergy supported by European-American ministers, priests and rabbis, contributed to the passage of these acts.
Of course, the example of Sheriff Bull Connor and his attack dogs also helped.(2 votes)
- Did this movement also involve Asian Americans and European-Americans ( Native Americans too ) who were also discriminated against throughout the generations?
Did this movement provide equity to all colored races?(2 votes)
- This movement inspired other movements/sentiments to arise among different communities. Yellow Power was one of such movements, bringing together Asian Americans. Native Americans also fought for the government to honor their treaty rights (which were breached throughout history) and acquire their land again (this movement was called Red Power). In all three movements, it brought youth activists together.(1 vote)