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Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:5:51
AP.USH:
KC‑5.3.I.D (KC)
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Unit 5: Learning Objective I
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WOR (Theme)

Video transcript

all right so we've been talking about the later stages of the American Civil War and in the last videos we talked about the Battle of Gettysburg and the Gettysburg Address which happened in November of 1863 as Abraham Lincoln went to the site of the Battle of Gettysburg to dedicate the cemetery that was being built there to hold the battlefield dead which numbered in the thousands so in the next few videos I'd like to take you through the last stages of the Civil War starting with late 1863 so if you think back to the very beginning of the war the North's strategy was called the Anaconda plan and the Anaconda is a kind of snake that squeezes its victims and so the plan of the North was going to be to squeeze the South by completely surrounding it and then not allowing anything to get in or out so the South would have no choice but to surrender as they ran out of supplies and so the Anaconda plan is going fairly well in this late period of the war so now you recall that they were going to blockade the Atlantic Ocean so that the South couldn't ship any of its cotton or to receive any supplies from Europe so that's not happening and to take control of the Mississippi River which goes here do to do and so the other reason why Abraham Lincoln was so happy after the North won the Battle of Gettysburg is because ulysses s grant had just taken Vicksburg which meant that the Union had control of the Mississippi River so you can see that the plan to surround the south is going pretty well and this this blockade extended all the way down around Florida so the last real area here that the Union needs to control is this sort of middle region here and you know that these are the border States so there's still slavery allowed in places like Kentucky and Tennessee and Maryland and another thing that's kind of hard to see from this map is that there are mountains here this is the Appalachian mountain range and so this is gonna be a difficult area to strategize through so thanks to this mountain range there are two real main theaters of war during the Civil War there's the eastern theater of the war which is over here and that includes a lot of the battles that are gonna take place in the Shenandoah Valley area of Virginia and through Georgia so kind of the the Tidewater Piedmont region of the east is one of the main areas where battle takes place during the Civil War but the other theater is this western theater and that includes the Mississippi River and these key border states of Kentucky and Tennessee so when last we left off with the Battle of Gettysburg robert e lee who was the commander of the armies for the confederacy had made an attempt to invade the north and got as far as southern Pennsylvania where the Union troops led by General George Meade turned the Confederates away and so now they're headed back to Virginia and there's going to be some really fierce fighting here in this northern part of Virginia known as the wilderness campaign as Lee retreats to Richmond so that's the eastern theater and I'll draw the the blue line that's gonna be following them here as well now in the Western theater of the war ulysses s grant has just provided a major victory by taking Vicksburg and now controlling all of the Mississippi River so Abraham Lincoln has been looking for a great general to lead his armies now Lee has been commander of the Confederate armies this entire time but the Union Army has had a multitude of commanders from Winfield Scott to George McClellan but in ulysses s grant lincoln finally finds his general and so after the victory at the siege of Vicksburg grant goes up into Tennessee and finally captures Tennessee so he takes Chattanooga and firmly puts Tennessee in control of the Union so look how well the Anaconda strategy is going now we've got Tennessee were almost there so after taking Chattanooga Lincoln makes grant the commander of all the Union armies he is the general in chief and it's going to be grant who ultimately leads the Union to victory and when he meets up with Lee as he will do once he heads to Richmond and then later Appomattox he's going to be the one who really ends the war by forcing Lee's surrender but we'll get to that all right so that's 1863 the period at which grant becomes commander of the armies Lee is turned away from his second invasion of the north and flees to Richmond and the stage is set for the final year and a little bit more of the war which we'll get to in the next video