If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:5:27

Video transcript

hanck grammarians today let's start talking about subordinating conjunctions words like although and after and because because this is a pretty complicated topic because in order to understand subordinating conjunctions you have to understand the difference between an independent and a dependent clause because that's what subordinating conjunctions do is they the unites independent and dependent clauses that's what subordinating conjunctions do but what what is what is what are these you know what is an independent and a dependent clause well okay so first of all let's back up again what is a clause a clause is just a language chunk that has a subject and a verb that's what a clause does all sentences are clauses but not all clauses are sentences I'll write that down so all sentences are clauses but not all clauses are sentences it's possible to have something that has both the subject and verb that doesn't stand on its own and that's a dependent clause we call that a sentence fragment what a dependent clause does is provide extra information that isn't necessary to the understanding of the sentence right but an independent clause has to be able to stand on its own so let's take a look at the sentence here Herbert performed his irresponsible experiments because he was curious and this sentence is composed of two clauses in red we've got this independent clause Herbert performed his irresponsible experiments and in green we have this dependent clause because he was curious now we know that because he was curious is the dependent clause because it explains more of why Herbert did what he did right it is explaining the reason for his performing irresponsible experiments but because he was curious on its own doesn't work as a sentence he was curious does that's a sentence but because he was curious asks more questions than it answers because he was curious what you know if if a clause causes you to ask yeah so what then probably a dependent clause write that down put that in a doctrine so a dependent clause should cause you to ask yeah so what because a dependent clause leans against an independent clause it's like a ladder laid up against the tree the tree is still going to be standing there whether or not the ladder is there or not but the ladder is useful because it allows you to get up further into the tree and explore its leaves if that makes sense it allows you to get further context and further understanding but the tree could just as easily it's still a tree without the ladder right you don't have to have a ladder in order to be a tree all right so another thing about the difference between a coordinating and a subordinating conjunction is that coordinating conjunctions only unites independent clauses with each other which means any sentence that has a coordinating conjunction like but or anything else in fanboys which is for and nor but or yet so right can be separated into two sentences two separate sentences look at this so jimothy like to wash the dishes but beckon II prefer to sweep the floor now these can each be their own sentences Jim if you like to wash the dishes Bek and he preferred to sweep the floor we can combine these that we want to and we have whereas this subordinating conjunction sentence that begins with although cannot be separated into two sentences although she loves Sir Reginald Lady Penelope hated his pranks so Lady Penelope hated his pranks that's a sentence although she loved Sir Reginald that's not a sense this is a dependent clause so this can be split this cannot be split because although she loved Sir Reginald doesn't stand on its own at just grants additional context in detail to the fact that Lady Penelope hated Sir Reginald pranks so with that in mind here are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions in English and some of these you might recognize as being adverbs or positions and other contexts but you can also use them to unite dependent and independent clauses so here we go after although as as if because before even if even though if if only like rather than since that though unless until when where whereas wherever whether which and while all of these words have the power to unite independent and dependent clauses you may notice some of them like after and before our prepositions they can be used in many ways English is complicated but I am confident that you can figure this out because you can learn anything these are some of the subordinating conjunctions of English David out