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Hector Guimard, Cité entrance, Paris Métropolitain

Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.

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  • female robot grace style avatar for user Lucas
    Why does Harris call Guimard as "gimar"?
    (6 votes)
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  • leafers ultimate style avatar for user Mary
    What do they mean by "organic forms"??
    (5 votes)
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  • leafers ultimate style avatar for user Scott
    Around , the speakers discuss the oxidation effect of copper and its beautiful appearance. My question is, for most large buildings of the time, were the effects of copper oxidation well understood at the time, and thus the use of copper was deliberate with the knowledge that it would become more beautiful with age, or is it largely happenstance?
    (4 votes)
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    • leaf green style avatar for user Thomas Deprez
      Notice that this is typical French Art Nouveau, a style which happens to search for biomorph curves (shapes that are inspired by nature, cf. plants) and organic expression of structure. They will try and achieve this by the use of materials who before were never used for such purposes. Shaping metal like flowers or plants, a thing that outwardly is quite paradoxal as we see metal as an industrial product. But the use of copper especially makes a lot of sense in this style period: Copper is easily shapable in the wanted organic curves and structures and is also a material that is indeed "alive"! It is indeed in itself, as a material, organic: for it would change it's colour over the years by the effect of oxidation. Moreover it would change to a green-ish colour, the base of the Art Nouveau colour scheme. To answer to your question is thus that the use of copper was more than deliberate! (Even if it would have only been to [deleted] the academics who were against the use of [alleged] new materials, simply because they weren't in their textbooks. Which is anyway even another side of the Art Nouveau movement)
      Hope this can be of any help to you!
      (4 votes)
  • leaf grey style avatar for user Michœl
    It's confusing in the video... is this one Subway entrance, or multiple entrances?
    (1 vote)
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  • piceratops ultimate style avatar for user Dayvyd
    Is this considered art because it was created by an artist, because it was commissioned to be intended as art, or something else? Personally, it just seems like a slightly touched up standard entrance to me...
    (2 votes)
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    • leaf orange style avatar for user Jake Suzuki
      Architecture can be considered the root of all art, and it is the art that no human can escape. Unless they prefer being cold, wet and miserable.
      Even a Russian Constructivist metro entrance, or a British Brutalist station would be art.
      It is a collection of forms, designed to be both functional and decorative, to enhance the public's access to beauty, as well as/or often having didactic themes.
      You may as well ask if Trajan's column is art, or the Eiffel Tower.
      (1 vote)
  • blobby green style avatar for user Lisa Hartmann
    Did these metro signs inspire any other artists' work?
    (1 vote)
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Video transcript

(lively music) Steven: We're on the Ile de la Cite in Paris, sandwiched in between Sainte-Chapelle and the Palace of Justice, in a large, open square. Beth: Not far from the Louvre. Steven: This is the very heart of Paris. Beth: We're looking at an entranceway for the Paris Metro that was designed by Hector Guimard around 1900. Steven: It's one of the quintessential examples of the art nouveau. Beth: And it's not situated in any one place. About 100 of these that were manufactured out of cast iron, painted green to look like bronze that has acquired a patina. Steven: Copper often turns that beautiful blue or green, and this is painted in order to look like that, but bronze is far too expensive, and this was meant to be done cheaply. Beth: It was manufactured in a modular system that allowed it to be produced in large number and easily assembled. Steven: It was wildly modern, but of course it wasn't only for the elite. It was for everybody. Beth: It was shift in the art nouveau, from a style associated with expensive items for an industrial nouveau riche, to applying that style, with its organic forms, to something that's mass produced. This is a subway station for a middle class that needed to move around freely in this new capitalist culture. It's a good reminder that there are idealist aspirations of creating something beautiful for the masses, something that could be mass-produced and easy to assemble and cheap. Beauty wasn't only for the rich, for the aristocracy. Steven: The Paris subway as a project was accelerated because of the coming of a large exposition in 1900 in Paris, and this was meant to help move a lot of people around the city, and of course it has been incredibly successful. But let's take a look. There's nothing like it in the subways that I'm used to in New York City. Beth: It announces itself. It doesn't hide. It isn't afraid of its modernity. Steven: You just hit on one of the main issues for the art nouveau. It was to counter all the historicizing that had been so much a part of the 19th Century. Think about architecture, for example. You have people reviving the Gothic, the Egyptian style. You have people reviving the classical. So Guimard is asking, what would a purely modern style look like? It's interesting that he goes back to nature. Beth: A lot of architects were asking this question, instead of looking back at those older styles and using that vocabulary: how could the artist of the late 19th Century, of this mass industrial culture, create a style that suited that culture? In fact, art nouveau existed across Europe and had different regional variations in Spain, in Vienna, in Belgium; and in France we see the use of organic forms, like we see here with Guimard. Steven: I'm looking up at the sign itself. It's held up, suspended between two plant-like stalks that look as if they're budding, except that the blossom, which is yet to open, is actually a lamp. There's a tree that's right next to one of the posts. One of its branches is tucked under the lamp, and you can really see the distinction between nature and this highly stylized representation of the organic, which is really the point here. This is not a representation of nature. It is a stylizing of a quality of growth. Beth: Growth is the key word. There are places where we have upward movement, those columns made to look like stalks that support the lamp; but we also see forms that seem to kind of melt or move downward. Steven: There's also a quality of unfurling, the way that a palm frond, or especially the frond of a fern uncurls as it grows. There is this wonderful quality not only of the organic, but of a kind of organic in motion. This gate is in awfully good condition, although you can see in places where the paint is chipped off, it's been repainted many times, and there's certainly some rust. There's one section that's in extremely good condition, and that's the sign that says, "Metropolitain". Beth: That was made out of ground [lava]. The architect is intentionally looking for materials that are going to last. Steven: It's a kind of ceramic. The part of that sign that I found most beautiful is the typeface. The letters have a really organic, rounded quality. It feels hand drawn, in some ways. Look at the "L" that almost looks like a leg that's walking forward. Beth: It's a real playful quality to it. Steven: Notice how it moves from a dark green-blue, down to a lighter blue; and so the entire object, from the typeface, to the oval of the sign, to the wonderful sinuous, unfurling stalks that surround it, everything feels as if it's in motion, that there's a kind of dynamism. What a perfect visual metaphor for a subway system. (lively music)