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An introduction to ancient China

Cup with high handle, approx. 2500–1900 B.CE. China; Shandong province. Neolithic period, Longshan culture (approx. 2500-1900 B.C.E.). Courtesy of the Asian Art Museum, Gift of Bruce and Terese Bartholomew, 1998.30.
We will refer to Ancient China as the time between the Neolithic period (ca. 6,000‒ ca. 1750 B.C.E.) and the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E.‒220 C.E.), which is roughly equivalent to the period of the Roman Empire in the West. This is the formative stage of Chinese civilization. During this time, what we now call China developed from a collection of isolated cultural communities to a set of organized states which eventually coalesced around the idea of a single unified state, and then expanded to include contact with other civilizations.
The first step was the development of agriculture. This resulted in settled life which produced surplus or stored goods. As more and more cultures came into close contact, the need for defense arose, and communities were walled in for protection. Societies became stratified around rulers and subjects, with allegiances and authority based on clan lines.
Organized warfare on a massive scale began. In its rise to civilization, China developed a system of writing, various beliefs about heaven and the cosmos, as well as technological breakthroughs that allowed for political control and economic expansion.
The rise of civilization in China meant a gradual process of organizing disparate groups around a set of common beliefs, first by force, and then by articulating what it meant to be Chinese. This self-consciousness first occurred during the Eastern Zhou dynasty (770‒221 B.C.E.) when a ‘hundred schools’ of philosophy debated everything from the nature of man to notions of proper conduct and the ideal ruler. This period was so influential that later dynasties would refer back to it as a measure of their own worth.
The Neolithic period through the Han dynasty can be broken down into the following periods:
*The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is usually broken down into regional areas, such as North-eastern China, North-Central, Eastern, South-eastern and South-central China. Furthermore, each area can be broken down into earlier and later Neolithic cultures.
**The Erlitou period, named after the excavated site of an ancient capital, continues to be a source of debate. Some historians believe it to be the site of the ancient Xia dynasty. Others consider it to be the early stages of the Shang dynasty. Dates for the Erlitou, Erligang and Anyang phases of ancient China are also subject to debate. The period of time from the Xia through the Zhou is often referred to as the Bronze Age in China.
***Western and Eastern signify a change in the capital of that dynasty from west to east, for example from ancient Chang’an (Xi’an) to Luoyang. The Eastern Zhou is divided up into several periods. During the Warring States, for example, power shifts to several competing states. Zhou continues to rule as a puppet state while others jostle for power. The Qin eventually succeed in defeating all other states, uniting China for the first time. Imperial China begins at this point.

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  • leafers sapling style avatar for user Scarlet
    Could you expand on chinese Mythology, and the different beliefs about heaven and the cosmos?
    (2 votes)
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    • leaf grey style avatar for user yu xiang
      Chinese in past thought that 天圆地方.It mean the world is limited,sky is like a cover and earth is like a block.That's the cosmos of them.
      There are two different heaven for Chinese.Some of them believe Buddhism,so they thought the heaven had many of people,and them have really good life.And there are also is a place of Buddha live in.But in Chinese local mythology,heaven just a place of god live in.The Buddhism heaven and Chinese local heaven is similarity and difference,one is the kind people live in after their death,another one is like heaven in Greek mythology.Well,I can't explain it easily.
      At last,I want tell you I am a Chinese junior school student,so don't care about my English.
      (10 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user irwan yogiyana
    execuse me Sir,i want to learn the notes of Xia and Shang dynasties, what makes their kingdom grow and why ultimately destroyed or changed dynasty? how about the social an cultural life? How about the health knowledge at the time? How about their military system? agricutural,what they life and what they eat? i really want to know about the book of the Yellow Emperor, execuse me, before for to many ask,thank you.
    (2 votes)
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    • marcimus pink style avatar for user edie
      can you read chinese ? if you cant , thats a pity, cause the series中国上下五千年is really good , and tells you about china from the first dynasty straight to the twentyfirst century.
      (3 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user Steven Davis
    Always useful to include references and comparisons to different cross cultures of that age. ie other bronze age civilizations.
    (2 votes)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user irgarcia2
    What was the first truly historical dynasty of China, and where did it arise?
    (2 votes)
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  • duskpin sapling style avatar for user AroaiN
    who was the first prime minister for china?
    (1 vote)
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  • leaf grey style avatar for user turnlyn
    Social Structure? Anyone? No? Ok. :(
    (1 vote)
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  • leafers seedling style avatar for user bakerolyvia
    I searched "How political power shifted over time in ancient China", and I can safely say this article didn't help me one bit.
    (1 vote)
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  • leaf red style avatar for user ian and devlin reuss
    what was the last dynasty in china?
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user john.karthickarulwincy
    What are some key facts for the various aspects of ancient China society?
    (1 vote)
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  • mr pants purple style avatar for user 4006757
    Were the ancient Chinese in the Neolithic Era as evolved as we are today?
    (1 vote)
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