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Italian Futurism: An Introduction

Can you imagine being so enthusiastic about technology that you name your daughter Propeller? Today we take most technological advances for granted, but at the turn of the
Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 (cast 1931), bronze, 43 7/8 x 34 7/8 x 15 3/4" (MoMA)
last century, innovations like electricity, x-rays, radio waves, automobiles and airplanes were extremely exciting. Italy lagged Britain, France, Germany, and the United States in the pace of its industrial development. Culturally speaking, the country’s artistic reputation was grounded in Ancient, Renaissance and Baroque art and culture. Simply put, Italy represented the past.
In the early 1900s, a group of young and rebellious Italian writers and artists emerged determined to celebrate industrialization. They were frustrated by Italy’s declining status and believed that the “Machine Age” would result in an entirely new world order and even a renewed consciousness.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, the ringleader of this group, called the movement Futurism. Its members sought to capture the idea of modernity, the sensations and aesthetics of speed, movement, and industrial development.

A manifesto

Marinetti launched Futurism in 1909 with the publication his “Futurist manifesto” on the front page of the French newspaper Le Figaro. The manifesto set a fiery tone. In it Marinetti lashed out against cultural tradition (passatismo, in Italian) and called for the destruction of museums, libraries, and feminism. Futurism quickly grew into an international movement and its participants issued additional manifestos for nearly every type of art: painting, sculpture, architecture, music, photography, cinema—even clothing.
The Futurist painters—Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, Gino Severini, and Giacomo Balla—signed their first manifesto in 1910 (the last named his daughter Elica—Propeller!). Futurist painting had first looked to the color and the optical experiments of the late 19th century, but in the fall of 1911, Marinetti and the Futurist painters visited the Salon d’Automne in Paris and saw Cubism in person for the first time. Cubism had an immediate impact that can be seen in Boccioni’sMateria of 1912 for example. Nevertheless, the Futurists declared their work to be completely original.
Umberto Boccioni, Materia, 1912 (reworked 1913), oil on canvas, 226 x 150 cm (Mattioli Collection loaned to Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice)

Dynamism of Bodies in Motion

The Futurists were particularly excited by the works of late 19th-century scientist and photographer Étienne-Jules Marey, whose chronophotographic (time-based) studies depicted the mechanics of animal and human movement.  
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A precursor to cinema, Marey’s innovative experiments with time-lapse photography were especially influential for Balla. In his painting Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, the artist playfully renders the dog's (and dog walker's) feet as continuous movements through space over time.
Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912, oil on canvas, 35 1/2 x 43 1/4 " (Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo)
Entranced by the idea of the “dynamic,” the Futurists sought to represent an object’s sensations, rhythms and movements in their images, poems and manifestos. Such characteristics are beautifully expressed in Boccioni’s most iconic masterpiece, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (see above).
Nike (Winged Victory) of Samothrace, c. 190 B.C.E. 3.28m high, Hellenistic Period, marge, (Musée du Louvre, Paris)
The choice of shiny bronze lends a mechanized quality to Boccioni's sculpture, so here is the Futurists’ ideal combination of human and machine. The figure’s pose is at once graceful and forceful, and despite their adamant rejection of classical arts, it is also very similar to the Nike of Samothrace.

Politics & War

Futurism was one of the most politicized art movements of the twentieth century. It merged artistic and political agendas in order to propel change in Italy and across Europe. The Futurists would hold what they called serate futuriste, or Futurist evenings, where they would recite poems and display art, while also shouting politically charged rhetoric at the audience in the hope of inciting riot. They believed that agitation and destruction would end the status quo and allow for the regeneration of a stronger, energized Italy.
These positions led the Futurists to support the coming war, and like most of the group’s members, leading painter Boccioni enlisted in the army during World War I. He was trampled to death after falling from a horse during training. After the war, the members’ intense nationalism led to an alliance with Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party. Although Futurism continued to develop new areas of focus (aeropittura, for example) and attracted new members—the so-called “second generation” of Futurist artists—the movement’s strong ties to Fascism has complicated the study of this historically significant art.
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  • purple pi purple style avatar for user Residuum
    So why did Marinetti call for the destruction of feminism? He seemed to resent the past ways of doing things, and female empowerment is a pretty modern idea historically.
    (22 votes)
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    • duskpin tree style avatar for user Maria Peralta
      In fact, the traditional Italian art has always been based on the praise of the woman and her body, the romanticized love, and as the futurists' goal was to destroy the tradition, they also attacked "the woman". Here is a quote from a dissertation I found: "In Marinetti's case, the object is not woman but a machine; likewise, the direction that his attention takes is to praise the beauty and nature of technology. To accomplish this, Marinetti subsequently attacks, vilifies, and destroys that which is in opposition to his object of praise.", and also: "Although Marinetti's critiques against Amore do not directly attack women or mothers, he does critique the role women play (both symbolically and culturally) within the language and poetic systems of the early twentieth century."
      That is also why, paradoxically, he says in one of his manifests "our best allies are the suffragettes, because the more rights and powers they win for woman, the more will she be deprived of Amore, and by so much will she cease to be a magnet for sentimental passion or lust". Now I quote the same dissertation: "Although the antagonistic attitude Marinetti takes against women and the suffragettes movement highlights why many critics dismiss Futurism as misogynistic, Marinetti's separation of women's bodies from the idealized and unrepresentable pedestal of "Woman" sounds surprisingly progressive for his culture and his time-certainly different from his call to "destroy feminism." This support for women's rights, however, is largely strategic. Marinetti considers the suffragettes movement "childish" and "ridiculous" and chooses to defend them for the simple reason that they will "involuntarily help us to destroy that grand foolishness, made up of corruption and banality, to which parliamentarianism is now reduced"" All quotes from Ghost in the Machine: Sound and Technology in Twentieth-Century Literature, A Dissertation by Michael Heumann, 1998; http://thelibrary.hauntedink.com/ghostinthemachine/ch3.html
      (13 votes)
  • leaf green style avatar for user leeclarke056
    How long did "dynamism" last? My understanding is that Surrealism encroached upon Futurism, sending it into oblivion.
    (3 votes)
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  • starky ultimate style avatar for user Tips
    Marinetti was a dumb dude, Scientists need those museums and libraries to develop, research and store old samples from times past. Why would he advocate for destruction of useful information? Is it because he wasn't a scientist himself?
    (2 votes)
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  • primosaur sapling style avatar for user Giulia Curtolo
    How did Futurist paintings differ before and after the impact of Cubism?
    (1 vote)
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  • orange juice squid orange style avatar for user understandgurlloger nope
    So Nice the Detail is just Magnificent.
    (2 votes)
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  • orange juice squid orange style avatar for user isalvador
    In the third paragraph, how did Filippo Tommaso Marintetti , the ringleader of this group come up with the idea of calling the movement Futurism? Did he have another idea instead of the word Futurism?
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user dodglu
    what impact did futurism have on history?
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user Caroline
    Walter Benjamin describes the futurist connection to fascism as "aestheticizing politics," what does this mean? How is it different from politicizing aesthetics?
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user Caroline
    What is the difference between futurism and vorticism??
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user Jaclyn  Logan
    Are there any examples of Futurism art from the 21st century?
    (0 votes)
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