If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content

The African American Civil Rights Movement, 1960s


“[In 1963,] peaceful protests— and the violent backlash against them— had spread across the South, from lunch counter sit-ins and ‘Freedom Rides’ aimed at desegregating public places and interstate buses, to firebombing mobs and defiant public school boards that had closed their districts’ doors rather than mix black and white students. Rigid racial segregation remained a fact of law and life in the states of the Old Confederacy nearly a century after the War Between the States had ended.”
-Source: Todd S. Purdum, historian, An Idea Whose Time Has Come, 2014
The pattern described in the excerpt most directly contributed to which of the following developments during the 1960s?
Choose 1 answer: