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### Course: Digital SAT Math > Unit 3

Lesson 10: Evaluating statistical claims: foundations# Evaluating statistical claims | Lesson

A guide to evaluating statistical claims on the digital SAT

## What are evaluating statistical claims problems?

We routinely conduct research to answer questions such as "how many residents are in favor of a new law" or "is a new medical treatment effective?" While research results can give us powerful insights, we must carefully consider

*how*the research is conducted, which in turn affects*what*conclusions can be drawn.For example:

- If a survey was given to individuals of one ethnicity, then the results of the survey are
*not*representative of individuals of other ethnicities. - If a medical treatment is effective when tested on mice, we
*cannot*conclude that the treatment is just as effective on humans without additional testing.

We won't be required to perform any calculations for these problems. Instead, we'll be asked to read fairly lengthy descriptions and then make logical observations or draw valid conclusions.

In this lesson, we'll learn to:

- Recognize good and bad sampling methods
- Draw valid conclusions from the results of surveys and experiments

**You can learn anything. Let's do this!**

## What are some good and bad sampling methods?

### Reasonable samples

### Examples of bias in surveys

### Example of "undercoverage" bias

### Sampling methods and their implications

Ideally, a provides information about a without having to survey the entire group.

To make valid conclusions about a population, we need a sample that recreates the characteristics of the entire population on a smaller scale.

A

*good*sample is**representative**and**random**.**Representative**means that the sample includes only members of the population being studied.**Random**means that every member of the population being studied has an equal chance to be selected for the sample.

*Bad*sampling methods include those that:

- Gather data from outside the population being studied
- Gather data that overrepresent or underrepresent a subgroup of the population (not random)

### Try it!

## What are some different types of studies, and what conclusions can we draw from the results?

### Types of statistical studies

### Correlation and causality

### Identifying study types

### Drawing conclusions from study results

#### Sample surveys

We can draw conclusions about

*only*the population from which the random sample was selected.#### Controlled experiments

To understand the conclusions we can draw from controlled experiments, we must first understand the difference between

**correlation**and**causation**.- Correlation means there is a relationship or pattern between the values of two variables.
- Causation means that one event causes another event to occur.

You may have learned about controlled experiments and the scientific method in more detail in your science classes. For the SAT, the key takeaway is that a is needed to establish a causal relationship.

### Try it!

## Your turn!

## Want to join the conversation?

- Here i thought math just involved numbers and variables....(130 votes)
- No literally same(11 votes)

- I'm impressed by how Sal draws perfect circles effortlessly.(69 votes)
- Probably with a lot of practice. Even I'm amazed :D(9 votes)

- A Level/AP Psychology kids skipping through this fosho(59 votes)
- I'm homeschooled and I'm just skimming at this point lol.(5 votes)

- How often do questions like these come on the SAT?(14 votes)
- tbh I haven't encountered this type of question in the digital sat practice test. But, they were present in the pencil-paper test.(38 votes)

- And they say, math is numbers..... hmmm have a taste of this!(28 votes)
- Increasing the volume of video sounds would be the most helpful thing(26 votes)
- Wow. Reading comprehension has infiltrated the Math section(23 votes)
- Definitely biased towards people who already know how phonebooks work.(5 votes)

- it reminds me of my a levels psychology class (i dropped it after 3 months)(20 votes)
- same for me, this ones much easier though(8 votes)

- "Based on the design and results of the study, which of the following in an appropriate conclusion?"

Am I bad at English or is the last question kind of weird? shouldn't it be " is an appropriate conclusion?". Khan pls pay me if I'm right.(11 votes)- your right👍

dw(0 votes)

- correlation and causation is really difficult to understand someone clear me please.(2 votes)
- Do you mean correlation and causation?

If so, CORRELATION means that two variables are related to each other/they exhibit a pattern e.g skateboarding and age (people who skateboard are usually really young;that doesn't mean that skateboarding causes people to be young, i.e if you skateboard more you won't become younger)

CAUSATION means that one variable CAUSES another e.g time spent studying and grades (studying less CAUSES lower grades, if you study more you will get higher grades)(14 votes)