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Current time:0:00Total duration:16:36

Writing: Informative — How-to example

Video transcript

so we've got a writing in a writing and language passage here it's called a life in traffic alright let's just get into it a subway system is expanded to provide service to a growing suburb a bike sharing program is adopted to encourage non motorized transportation stoplight timing is coordinated to alleviate rush-hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area when any one of these changes occur it is likely the result of careful analysis conducted by transportation planners so that felt a little off it's just a little bit more carefully when any one of these changes so they're talking about the individual changes they're not talking all of these changes at the same time so if you're saying any one of these things you're talking that you have a you have a singular subject right over here so the verb should match that singular subject but they have occur if you said well if you said all of these changes then you would say a cur if you're talking about the plural many changes what are they doing they occur but if you're saying any one change it doesn't occur a single thing occurs we need to give this this needs to be the singular form form so you know if that one change occurs not occur so this should be occurs so let's look at the choices so both of these are occurs this one says when any one of these changes occurs they are well we're talking about any one change so you shouldn't refer to it as day for any one change remember if you said when all of these changes occur then you could have said they are but if you're saying any one is once again you're only referring to one of the changes it occurs and you should refer to it as it so they're right there what any one of these changes occurs it is likely the result of careful analysis conducted by transportation planners we're now in the second paragraph of a life in traffic the work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating current transportation needs assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities and improving those facilities or they design a new alright that felt a little bit off so let's think about what's happening here they're listing a bunch of stuff they're listing the work of they're listing what is included in the work of transportation planners so the work of transportation planners generally includes and then the first thing is evaluating current transportation needs then assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities and improving those facilities or they design new ones so right over here when we're listing the different things we see these first the first several things in our list we have evaluating the fancy term for something like this this is a gerund this is a verb you put an ING at the end of it it becomes a noun the verb to evaluate well now we're talking about the action of evaluating so that's a gerund then we have it again assessing and then we have improving and then if you want this sentence to be constructed in a natural way instead of a design you would want the the gerund form of design which is designing let's see how that sounds the work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating current transportation needs assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities and improving those facilities or designing new ones that sounds a lot better and if you want it to be even clearer you can just kind of just think about the these these gerron's themselves the work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating assessing and improving or designing that you have a nice parallel construction it's called and at all of the things that you're listing are in the same form so this this should definitely be designing designing and if we look here luckily that is one of the choices we're now on question three right over here and when if you're under time pressure in the SAT you might want to think about going straight to the sentence that involves question three in it and different people might have one different style some people might want to read all of the context to kind of keep up with the passage and it depends on how fast you might read but a lot of these you might be able to jump straight and be able to go straight to the question so let's do that first then we can go back and see if reading this actually helped us if analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the current road as it is designed at this time that sounds a little strange can efficiently accommodate the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane so they're really just saying if the traffic if analysis of the traffic count indicates that there's more traffic than the current road can accommodate that the current road can efficiently accommodate so really maybe you know you don't need any of this stuff right over here let's look at the choices so no change no I definitely want to change it away it's written right now is way more complicated than it needs to sound it's very hard to understand current design of the road right now if analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the current design of the road right now you know that that that right now feels unnecessary if analysis of the traffic count indicates that there's more traffic than the road as it is now currently designed can efficiently accommodate yeah that's a little bit wordy still so this one this one actually if analysis of the traffic count indicates that there's more traffic then the current design of the road can efficiently accommodate the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane yep this is definitely the one you know what I didn't look at the choice I said well you could just say the current road can efficiently accommodate we could also say the current design of the road can efficiently accommodate it makes this a much much cleaner easier to understand easier to understand sentence now that we've done that let's just read the the and you obviously would not have time to do this if you were taking the SAT but let's just think about what what the rest of it said most transportation planners were in or near Syria cities but some are employed in rural areas say for example a large factories built on the outskirts of a small town traffic to and from that location would increase at the beginning and end of work shifts the transportation planners job might involve conducting a traffic count to determine the daily number of vehicles traveling on the road to the new factory if analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the current design of the road can efficiently accommodate the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another Lane so all of this the the sentence is in between question two and question three it's nice it gives you context for why some transportation planners might have to deal with stuff that's in more rural areas such as where there's a factory and that's actually the context for having to analyze the traffic as people go to and from work but you actually didn't need to read all of this in order to in order to answer this question right over here so we're now on to question four transportation planners work closely with a number of community stakeholders such as government officials and other interested organizations and individuals next representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more so next definitely feels like a strange word to put there in this first sentence and I do think it was necessary to read this first sentence here because this whatever we put here is I think going to connect that first and the second sentence so the first sentence is talking about transportation planners they work with other stakeholders such as government officials and other interested organizations and individuals now here where they talk about representatives from the local public health department this looks like an example so I would say something like for example representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more so let's see what the choices give us so we definitely want to say no change well for instance this is like saying for example for instance it's giving an actual instance and an actual example of transportation planners working closely with a community stakeholder now furthermore this isn't extent what was said in the first sentence it's giving an example of it once again similarly it's not it's not saying something that is like what the first sentence said it's giving an actual example of what the first Senate said so it's definitely be for instance for instance representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more members of the Chamber of Commerce might share suggestions about designing transportation and parking facilities to support local businesses so that was a another example right over there all right let's go on to question five now in question five people who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds that she feels pretty good I don't know if I would change that at all but let's let's see what the other choices are people who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds when you put these commas around who pursue careers in transportation planning it makes it look like hey that's that's just you know that's that's something that doesn't have to be part of the sentence it's a sometimes people would say it's an a non-restrictive clause it's a clause that doesn't it kind of tells you another way of thinking about people it's an optional thing but for this sentence we don't want it we couldn't just say people have a wide variety of educational backgrounds even though that is true people do have a wide variety of educational backgrounds that go that's not what the the meaning of the sentence is it's very important that we talk about what type of people people who pursue careers and transportation planning so I guess one way you could call it is this is a very important restrictive clause for this sentence you need to know what type of people that is key to the meaning of the sentence so I wouldn't I wouldn't put them I wouldn't put commas around it which makes you feel that it's a it's it's optional it's another way of describing the people maybe you could just read people have a wide variety of educational backgrounds so I don't like this I think for the for the meaning that we are trying to give that the writer is trying to give it's very important that you have who pursue careers in transportation planning not have commas once again the commas make it sound like you're it's just another describing people not essential necessarily to the meaning of the sentence but this is essential to the meaning of sentence people who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of education backgrounds well this is kind of doing something similar now they're just putting in transportation planning in commas and if one way to think about that is you could say like people who pursue careers have a wide variety of educational backgrounds well that's a true statement but this whole passage is about people who pursue careers in transportation planning you don't want to you don't want to just like we said for B you don't want to mark this off you don't want to mark this off with a with this clause making it seem like this this clause is kind of optional you need to say in transportation planning so I wouldn't put commas around it and then finally people who pursue careers in transportation planning comma have a wide variety of educational backgrounds well that just feels that that's you we're just taking the kind of the the subject of the sentence and separating it from the predicate of the sentence with a comma for for some reason so that doesn't make any sense so I would definitely go at no change there's no commas in it people who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds and then we could keep reading but obviously if you're an under time pressure for the SAT you wouldn't necessarily have to read all of this but between answering all these questions I it's nice to be able to read all this a two-year degree in transportation technology may be sufficient for some entry-level jobs in the field most jobs however require at least a bachelor's degree majors of transportation planners are varied majors of transportation planners are varied including fields such as urban studies civil engineering geography or transportation and logistics management for many positions in the field a master's degree is required so once again if you were doing this passage you wouldn't really have to read all of this you could have just tackled this sentence by itself but if you have the time it doesn't hurt to you might learn something about career of transportation planning we're now on question six and there's a little bug here I'm using an early prototype version of the software it's it's question 6:05 and should be 6 of 6 but anyway I think we get the point transportation planners perform critical work within the broader field of Urban and Regional Planning as of 2010 there were approximately forty thousand three hundred Urban and Regional planners employee the United States the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts steady job growth in this field projecting that 16% of new jobs in all occupations will be related to Urban and Regional Planning so grammatically that looks correct but then they have this chart down here and it says urban and regional planners predict increase in employment projected 2010 to 2020 and when they tell us about Urban and Regional planners is that between 2010 and 2020 there's going to be a 16% increase in employment and so I think what's going on here is that this isn't about grammatically fixing the sentence but actually seeing whether the meaning of this sentence is correct so this is projecting that 16 percent of all new jobs of new jobs in all occupations will be related to Urban and Regional Planning is that what this is saying is this 16 percent saying the percent of all of new jobs and all occupations that will be related to Urban and Regional Planning know the 16 percent says it's the growth in employment in Urban and Regional planners it's not saying that 16 percent of all jobs in all occupations will be related to Urban and Regional Planning in fact when you just look at the wrong number forty thousand three hundred Urban and Regional planners employed in the United States that's way way way way way way less than then 16 percent even if you have growth from 2010 to to 2020 so this sentence is just not right when you look at this data that should be talking about growth from 2010 to 2020 it shouldn't be talking about 16 percent of all jobs are going to be related to urban urban planning so let's see which of these choices would go we definitely I want to say no change because we don't think that's right so we could say warning however that job growth in Urban and Regional Planning will slow to 14 percent by 2020 well I guess there's there's two issues here one there's no data that implies that the job growth will slow to fourteen percent by 2020 and the other thing is the idea of warning however it's somehow that this Clause would contradict what was just said the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics forecast steady job growth in this field warning however that job growth and Urban and Regional Planning will slow and I mean they almost contradict each other the first part says that there's going to be steady job growth and then the second one says warning however that it's going to slow and there's no data to back this up predicting that employment of Urban and Regional planners will increase 16% between 2010 and 2020 well I think that's what this thing is this is this is what they're saying that you're gonna have 16% increase in employment between 2010 and 2020 so that one looks very accurate it's actually what's being described by this chart indicating that 14 to 18 percent of urban and regional plan or planning positions will remain unfilled well though that's not what this chart is telling us we don't have any data and saying what percent is going to be unfilled so I definitely wouldn't pick this so we said we would say the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics forecast steady job growth in this field predicting that employment of Urban and Regional planners will increase 16% between 2010 and 2020 once again we changed it not because this sentence was grammatically correct incorrect but because this sentence not because the sentence was grammatically incorrect but because it actually wasn't consistent with the data it just wasn't right the meaning wasn't correct this see here has the correct meaning