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Effective strategies for each SAT section

Video transcript

I am the Khan Academy SAT coach test prep master tutor and I'm here to help you for the next 45 minutes to an hour go over some last-minute tips and strategies that are really helpful should be really helpful to help you you know gain confidence and raise your scores on Saturday and if you're not taking the test on Saturday whenever you take the test and so I'm going to highlight a number of things today or the things that I think are the most you know the biggest game changers for different areas of the test so today we're going to go over last-minute tips strategies for test day we're going to go over a technique called plugging in for the math tests we're going to go over active reading on the reading test the importance of rephrasing and predicting on the reading test and we're also going to talk about some writing and language test item items really just about punctuation is all the time about everything we'll have time for and then we're going to go over the essay prompt and ways in which the essay prompt can can help you improve your improve the accuracy of your response and do what the the SAT wants you to do here we go we're going to talk about math test top strategy plugging in we're going to go over 1 2 3 plugging in 1 2 & 3 on some algebra questions that are really tricky we have testing values which can help you understand an algebra question they might have more trouble conceptualizing and we're also going to look at a problem that is plugging the point into the equation let's go to the next thing so here's an example of a problem in which plugging in numbers can help you understand make sense of what's going on in a problem so let's get started to edit a manuscript Miguel is charging $50 for the first two hours and $20 per hour for after the first two hours which of the following expresses the amount in dollars see miguel charges if it takes him x hours dead of the manuscript where x is greater than 2 okay so the proper way to do this in math class algebra is to understand that you he's first charging the $50 and then he is going to charge $20 for every hour after the first two which means that you need to write X minus 2 in there you may not realize that and that may be something that's challenging for you if you look at an algebra questioning you think I just can't understand what's going on here you could try plugging in now would that look well in this case we're not going to plug in one we're not going to plug in 2 because X has got to be greater than 2 so we're going to try plugging in 3 and see what happens so what does that mean if I'm plugging in 2 ever plugging in 3 I'm going to write down x equals 3 and then I'm going to say okay what is X X is the number of hours it takes Tatem in manuscript so if he has 3 hours if he's charging for 3 hours he's going to charge $50 to the first hour and then in the second hour and then the third hour he's going to charge 20 bucks so we have a grand total of a 70 so this 70 is something that's kind of what needs to come out when X is 3 and so what you can do is you can take that 3 and plug it into our choices so if let's look at Eddie so a we have 20 times 3 B we have 20 times 3 plus 10 that looks good see we have 20 times 3 plus 50 d we have 20 times 3 plus 90 our answer is B okay and as you see it also matches up with what we did here if you had you know that's the correct way to conceptualize a site this up this problem this will come out to be 50 plus 20 X minus 40 because you just tribute here and here and that's going to give you 20 x plus 10 okay so you can double-check it that way both ways we have B but plugging in can be super helpful as you've just seen so let's do a couple more I'm a voter registration drive is held in town Y the number of voters V registered T days after the drive began can be estimated by the equation V equals three thousand four hundred fifty plus sixty five T the question is what is the best interpretation of the number sixty five in this equation best interpretation of some component of an equation this is a type of question that you're likely to see on Saturday if the answer doesn't just jump out at you you can start thinking about what it would mean to plug in different numbers and see what happens right so if if we're plugging in one forty one day after the drive began we'd have V is three for fifty plus sixty five times one and if T is 2 this is T equals 1 this is T equals 2 this is T equals three we're going to do that I'm 34 50 plus 65 times 2 and then the next one is going to be 34 50 plus 65 times 3 and so what's happening here look at you start looking at the choices like what is that what is that number doing what is this number 65 doing we look at the choices it seems to be increasing each day the number the total number increases by 65 right the first one we have you know 165 then we have 265 then we have 365 s what's happening here well if we look at the choices we have the number of registered voters a we have the number of registered voters at the beginning of the registration plan so no 64 they weren't 65 at the beginning it seems like 34 50 is the number at the beginning let's cross that all the way out be the number of registered voters at the end of the administration Drive was that 65 no let's cross it up see the number the total number of voters registered during the drive 65 no okay so we ran through two and it makes sense the number of voters registered each day during the drive each additional day is 65 more voters so plugging in cannot be make sense of questions like this as well okay so let's move on to another one this one's a little tricky it's about exponential growth which is a more advanced concept but you'll find that plugging in numbers can help here as well and when do we know when to use plugging in numbers often it's with algebra questions that you can't really make sense of so when you're trying to like figure out what to do next and you don't know what you're looking at with equations like this let's read it first okay so a biology class at Central High School predicted that the local population of animals will double in size every 12 years the population at the beginning of 2014 was estimated be 50 animals okay so 2014 is 50 animals if P represents the population n the N years after 2014 then which of the following equations represents the class's model of the population over time model the population kind of scary if you don't if you can't look at these choices and say like oh that makes sense it's got to be bloody blah then what can you do you can save yourself okay what's happening here let's see what happens it's doubling in size or doubling in size every 12 years so in 2014 it's 50 animals so when's it going to be doing is it going to double it's going to double 12 years from now so so we could say that that's you know 2026 but that's when n is 12 so when n is 12 then we should have a result that is 100 right so I'm going to plug in N equals 12 and see whether you know C were there any of these things match so I take 12 and I plug it into the choices 12 plus 50 times 12 it's not a hundred fifty plus 12 times 12 that's not 100 this one we get 50 times 2 to the 12 and power so let's we could look at that it doesn't look like it'll be 100 but these are kind of confusing so you may as well let's just see what happens we work it out we have 50 times 2 to the 12 times 12 I mean it's definitely not 2 to the 144 that's huge that number is it mints no way it's a hundred so we could just say okay it's D but let's look at let's look at this and say well let's just double check 50 times 2 to the 12 over 12 50 times 2 to the 1 100 we have a winner okay so we proved it to ourself just by plugging in again plugging in really powerful strategy try it okay one more I can't overemphasize like how helpful this strategy can be um we can plug in numbers here if the object of mass M is moving at speed V the objects kinetic energy ke is given by the equation here if the mass of the object is held halved mass is x 1/2 and the speed is doubled how does a kinetic energy change if you're just rushing through this testing we're being careful you might say okay have and doubled well that should just cancel it out maybe it's unchanged I wouldn't count on that kind of reasoning potential to answer the questions in the test we're going to see in the reading section it doesn't make sense to do that too like read the question look at the choices choose the one that looks best it's really not the best way to work your way through the test okay so here's you know what first I'll do it the way that would make sense to do properly okay in the way that in terms of conceiving of this we have a kinetic energy we have a kinetic energy you know one the first one as it starts is 1/2 times m1 v1 squared okay then we're going to have a new kinetic energy and m2 is going to be M 1/2 so it's M 2 is half of the original mass right and the speed is doubled so V 2 is 2 times V 1 and then you can plug that all in and and figure it out so but my point is this like this we'll definitely let's just go ahead and do it so let's see 1/2 and then ke 2 is going to be with M 2 so it's M 1 over 2 and it's times V squared which is 2 V 1 squared and we see that it isn't just unchanged but the point I want to make here is that a special strategy is to plug in some stuff so let's imagine that rather than dealing with all this m1 v1 things I'm going to plug in like the mass the first mass let's make mass 1 yes 1 is going to be 2 and V 1 is going to be 3 and I'm just plugging in 2 and 3 you could plug in other numbers it doesn't matter so let's see what happens so our first kinetic energy is 1/2 times 2 times 3 squared that's ke 1 and now ke 2 is going to be half we're having okay we need to cut the mass in half so this is going to be times 1 and our velocity is going to be let's see v1 is going to be doubled so this is times 6 and that gets squared okay so k1 was 1/2 times 2 times 3 squared which is 9 and this is 1/2 times 1 times 6 squared so that's 18 so 1/2 times 1 times 36 so ok e2 equals 18 so our kinetic energy doubled because we went from 9 to 18 ok another example plugging in okay one last plugging in example sometimes you're given an equation and then you're given points that you could plug into that equation or so let's read this the function f is defined by this where C is a constant on the XY plane so C is some constant the xy-plane the graph of F intersects the x axis at 3 points here the three points what is the value of C well you could try to do a lot of out you could try to find the zeros of this equation you could plug in the factors of this polynomial or it may be more straightforward for you to just choose one of these and plug it in choose one of these points let's start with that one and plug it in this is the you know this is the point negative 4 0 which means that this point works with this equation so let's see what happens 2 times negative 4 cubed plus three times negative four squared plus C times negative four plus eight okay and that came out to be zero okay f of X that's in this case you could think of it as being Y the point negative four zero when you plug negative four into these equation you came out and got zero the value of the equally the value of the function is zero there so then we have to solve this so negative four cubed is negative 64 2 times negative 60 negative 64 plus 3 times 16 because negative 4 times negative 4 is positive 16 plus C times negative 4 I can you know that's plus negative 4 C let's just call let's just say minus 4 c plus 8 equals 0 is giving boiling it down we have negative 128 plus 48 minus 4c plus 8 equals 0 and then negative 28 negative 128 plus 48 is negative 80 minus 4c plus 8 equals 0 we could let's just move the 4c over there negative 80 plus 8 is negative 72 equals 4c so I added 4 C to both sides but add 4 C I have to add 4 C so just some over and we divide by 4 5 by 4 we get negative 18 that's our answer so it's still a hard question don't get me wrong this is a challenging question but plugging the point into the equation is another kind of plugging in that you can do on the test ok so let's move on we're going to move on we're going to talk about about reading and writing strategies and I want to just bring you back to the SAT mission mission slash SAT and Academy where you can find problems to practice okay so this is a strategy that is highlighted in the tips and strategies section of Khan Academy a fidelity practice and it is called it is a version of a famous active reading strategy technique called sq3r provides sort of adopted it for the SAT the S stands for survey the Q stands for question the R's stand for there are 3 R's first one is read second one is recite third one is review and so let's see how that works okay so we're going to we're going to do an overview of this and then we'll move into looking how it works on a passage so we're first going to survey when we turn to a new new passage in the SAT turn the page there it is bang what do we do if we follow this strategy and there are other strategies but this one works pretty well the first thing we're going to do is we're going to read the blurb for context the blurb is a little small print at the top it's going to tell you a little bit about what you're about to read it to me the title maybe's going to tell you the year that it was written and we'll just sort of let that go but you should skim it because it's going to start bubbling away in the back of your mind then I'm going to then skim is this as part of the surveying the scanning and skimming you're going to do if you just have a quick look at the first sentence from a paragraph this is going to take you one minute don't take a lot of time with it because you are going to read the passage believe it or not and then I like you to consider surveying the questions to doing that you're going to put little marks in them you're going to read and see what you know whether there are questions that mention paragraph 3 whether there are questions and mention specific line numbers you're going to put like you put brackets along the side of your passage and again this is just a quick scan and skim you're not trying to do these questions you're not trying to remember these questions you also can circle your name's of big words in there questions because if you have looked at them once the chances are good that your brain will kind of like perk up when you read it when you're finally reading the passage and this should take not very long just a minute or two not as much as to probably close to a minute um so the the next thing you're to do is going to do the question stage and the question stage is just a really quick thing and it's all just about getting fired up you can be like okay why do I care like get excited maybe I'm not excited about this but I'm going to make myself excited because that way I'm going to ask questions as I go what's the point of this passage these are the some questions you could ask yourself you don't have to answer it you don't have to take too much time but the idea is what is this about what do I hope to learn in this passage then you're going to start reading actively what is reading actively mean it means underlining and circling claims things that the you know the the paragraph is saying you know this is a problem and then you that may be a claim and then there be examples throughout the paragraph that extended support that claim you're going to underline in circle keywords the idea is just sort of do with your hand near the gestures that you're making with your hand on the page which your hope your brain is doing in terms of remembering what you're reading you're reading actively you should make quick notes we have three different kinds of you know there are four different really useful quick notes you can make there's the plus if the author is supporting some idea you could a little put a little plus in the you know in the margins if if there's you know something thing undermines maybe being criticized heavily you can put them - if you if there's if the people that are being described have are confused you could put a question mark if if the people you know who are being mentioned are excited there's this huge discovery then you could make a little exclamation point those are just ways to engage with what you're reading other two points want to make are circling the butt and circling the and the butt is basically contrast words and you're probably thinking of them right now we have however unfortunately there are tons of them in the and ago nevertheless even so in fact is actually a contrast word you know then we have circling the ands and that's their fours and since and so those are all hand words those are important a circle the last thing I'll mention is the semicolon semicolons are helpful because they usually indicate that the sentence is going to tell you the same thing in a slightly different way so if you don't understand the first time maybe the second time will you know be it'll be more straightforward so that so semicolon is also a form of the hand okay so that was the reading that was active reading and then as you go I also want you to consider after every paragraph saying what was that about what was the point and you make a little note in the margin you use your own words to describe what you're reading and that kind of gives you control over what you're reading so you don't find yourself reading the second paragraph and realizing you have no idea what the first paragraph is about it happens especially it would you know on test day to many people the more you're able to rephrase it as you go along after every paragraph and then finally the review part is after completing the passage the more you'll be set up to answer the questions correctly okay the next big reading strategy I want talk about is just a follow on if there's active reading and that is two critical things excuse me one of them is rephrasing and one of them is predicting rephrasing is a way of getting control of a question a lot of these questions just kind of peter out at the end and they don't actually have a question mark is the reading section and what i want you to avoid at all costs is doing this don't read the questions then the choices and choose the one that sounds best we talked about that earlier it's not the best way to do that the SAT or any test what you should do is to rephrase if possible we'll see what that means in a second that's using how what or why every question can't be rephrased using how or why but many of them can and those that can it's worth doing because it what it does is it gives you control the question and gives you a more pointed question to go back to the passage and um and read around and predict so you're reading around any line references that are mentioned in the passage in the question you're reading around and then you are going to predict so rephrasing and predicting are the two things that you should be find yourself doing again and again as you go and the goal is to know what you want before you start looking okay if you know what you want before you start looking you're not going to wind up looking at the choices one by one and trying to make sense of them okay because that's just a recipe for losing a lot of time weight you're spending time giving the benefit of doubt to questions to answer choices that that aren't right and then find yourself trying to figure out how they could be right when you're much better served you'll save more time if you go and you get your own answer you trust yourself you need your own answer and then cross out the ones that don't match your answer because your answer is going to be based on evidence that you will find in the passage because every question there's only one right answer and that one right answer is an answer that is backed up by evidence the others are wrong for whatever reason but the right answer has evidence okay here are some here are some examples of rephrasing this is an exercise I have some water what you guys read read these for a second I whip these up earlier the author mentions the craft of cat hair felting it's a real thing primarily in order to so that question is from like can I go back to the passage and like say the author mentions a crafter craft that you get tongue-tied even thinking about it or talking about it so if you can rephrase that and say what why is the cat hair felting better why why why right in order to is sort of a why that's something you can keep in your head why is it have fun here felting there and you go and you answer that question in your own words and then you come across other ones that don't match look at the next one the author introduces the second paragraph with the word luckily in order to I would rephrase this saying what does luckily do why is it there why what does it do okay what's the what is the function or purpose of the word luckily okay go back you answered in your own words across other lenses don't match your answer the description and third paragraph indicates that what Kermit values most about Miss Piggy is her is her what okay so you go back and you say how do we phrase it like why what does he value most about her you go back and you may discover that it's her strength there's an example of her strength or her loyalty and like in battle and you'd say like oh it's the loyalty and you go and you cross out the ones that don't the answer choices that don't include loyalty because there's evidence that tells you that the third paragraph loyalty is key okay so in the context of the passage the author's use of the phrase jiggy with it is primarily meant to convey the idea of that okay so you say yourself like it's not it's not what does jiggy with it mean it's why does the author use that phrase and you go back like why is it there is it because he's trying to be cool is it because he really loved Will Smith in the late 90s we we don't know but you go back you find evidence there's clearly some evidence about why the author has decided to use this word okay and then you answer that question you come back cross out the answers that don't the choices that don't match your answer okay we're gonna have a quick look quick a quick look at another very common reading question it's a words in context question as it's used in line 9 whatever the word pander most nearly means not a dot and there usually are our answers that are synonyms or the or somehow remind you of this word so indulge is it flatters that accommodate is it to pet a black and white bear probably not but what you do is you choose one of two plans one is to cross out the word in the passage just go and find it cross it out and then you read around it this is we're going to wrap it let's read around and predict and then we're going to make up our own wording set that's the prediction we go back we look better we see that though the word pander is used to mean to flatter and say what somebody you know somebody wants to hear and then you go and you cross at the choices that don't match your word now that plan B if you can't come up with your own word is to cross out the word in the passage same and then you can just plug in the choices to see which one sounds best generally pretty reliable way and especially now on the you know the new format of the SAT we don't have words that are super complicated that are you know the words like mendacious and lacquer you know lachrymal or whatever words that that are they're no longer in the SAT usually you can plug in these choices and have a sense of which ones sounds best okay so we are moving on we're not sure what I want to show in this one but we'll move on ah reading it's time to practice and to demonstrate what this these strategies were so we talked about sq3r first thing we'll do is we will will read the blurb passage is adapted from Jan Delhi and written oral a happiness test for the new measures of national well-being how much better than GDP are they okay it's about happiness and whether it's how it's related to GDP that's interesting might not know GDP is I'm gonna learn that and and I may do something to do with happiness or not so we're going to learn about that and then what I'll do is I'll have a quick look at that the the first sentences of these paragraphs currently a broad global movement away from considerations a global movement that sounds big away from considerations of mere economic success towards a new so away from economics away from that towards a new public policy goal of involving a broader notion of quality of life okay quality of life economics okay we'll scroll down a little bit this movement is also spur to rethinking okay so we're going to read the brisk skimming here we're scanning three key strategies have been employed we have healing complimenting replacing this one is about the first groove initiatives one key aim of this group of measures okay and then we're going to that's a quick scan and then I'm going to scan these this going to look at a couple of the questions on this set we have a reference to a guy named Simon Kuznets okay that's a memorable name there's use in line eight I'm going to find the word prominent maybe Circle it and then I'm going to first remove initiatives I can maybe look for this first group of initiatives but we could also do that later I've already inter underlined that but you know there it is first group initiatives one other thing that you could think about doing when you're scanning if that's something that you find yourself doing because you're short on time on the reading section is that you can you can basically bring your finger down the center of this text I'm not recommending this if you're not short on time okay if you're looking for if you're if you feel like you're the sir if you're the sort of test taker who runs at a time in the reading section and you need to pick up some points you might find yourself looking for names like Simon Kuznets because you just don't have enough time to finish reading the passage what you can do is you know bring your finger down the center of the text and say oh there he is okay similarly I could be bringing my finger down the center of the text and I say you know first group of initiatives and then I saw that as well so that's just another sort of skimming strategy that um that you might need that you could use if it helps okay just check the time time is flying so let's just go and let's see there's one other question down here which is a best evidence question okay we're not going to we're not going to spend time looking at these don't don't look at these now okay because your next step is to is to read the passage and as you're reading you will do this annotation that we've kind of kind of showed you some of that but now let's let's imagine we've read it and I just want to use the riprap use the rephrasing and prediction strategy to answer some of these questions in the first paragraph the reference assignment cousin it's mainly serves to mainly serves to so that is a what does it do you know what is its purpose why is Simon Kuznets referenced so we're going to read around it okay so let's start maybe here this is the most prominent yardstick the media politicians and the public consider when they has tried to assess how a country is performing however this measure was meant never meant to be a measure of the welfare of Nations okay so he warned Simon Kuznets is a gun troops Simon Cousins is a guy who warned about GDP being used as a measure of the welfare of nations it's not meant to do that so it serves to show that so again we're sort of go back going back to this question the reference is serving to show that it never was meant to be that way ok so let's look at the choices we predicted that's sort of a prediction what is the reference doing it's it's saying that he it was never meant to be a measure of the welfare of nations look at the choices is it to emphasize is the reference to him to emphasize that the GDP is a respected and valid tool and it doesn't sound like what I was looking for I'm going to skip to the next one underscore a common concern about the GDP that that sounds tempting by citing a critic critic he he had a critic he actually he created it okay so this this makes that wrong okay see clarify an abstract point about the development of GDP by mentioning its creator okay they do mention their creator okay I'm going to leave that a maybe but an abstract point about the development is is he mentioned to clarify an abstract point no okay so be careful here that that looks good if you look if you're just rushing at it but you know if you're keeping your head what you're looking for let's look a D strengthen the argument that the GDP does not adequately measure some well-being yeah that's so that that's what the Simon said it doesn't adequately measure well-being that's our answer okay so then let's move on prominent most nearly means most prominent yardstick I'm going to use the technique I talked about the most prominent yardstick that the media I'm going to cover up the choices okay that's the most useful most pronounced yardstick remarkable recognized or projecting it's not a projecting yardstick or trying to use a word most prominent yardstick that the media considers when they try to assess they are using it a lot it's remarkable know it's it's prominent as it recognized to recognize your attic so we can plug in pronounced yardstick isn't really what we're looking for looking for one that people are using people are acknowledge is useful first group of initiatives would primarily check the time okay first word of initiatives I'm going to look at this I'm going to say what does the first group initiatives do what does it do and refreezing it going back first group of initiatives we had dealing with the downsides of GDP by attempting to fix the indicator itself fixing to cater itself that's what the person is doing and then I may have to go down here because it puts there's clearly some information here in this paragraph because it's about that whole indicator one kiemce of the group of measures is to account for sustainability it gets kind of dense for example that's going to be supporting you know evidence to support that claim let's have theirs however I'm going to circle that that's a bottom in a circle however they also reflect additional social factors such as household labor and education with the rising value while air pollution and environmental damage lower the score has a consequence downsides of economic growth and modernization ought to be accounted for whilst retaining the benefits namely namely a single figure that captures different entities and is comparable across the nation so this group wants to find a different measure okay they're fixing the indicator itself okay it's trying to fix the engine so we know we're looking for trying to fix the Indian the indicator itself change the measurement a change the measurement approach to compass only social factors only is it kind of a giveaway here it he wants to be what's to capture everything is not exclusively social factors across that out its extreme only is extreme every is extreme you can you be careful about extreme answers you want to really get give them a strong check if you think that they might be right um take both positive and negative factors into account universally universally the kind of extreme to but we do have a balance thing happening in this cancer I'm going to leave that in show the positive effects of modernization is new measurements that's not what I was looking for right this is what happens on the reading section you if you if you give the choices too much and benefit the doubt you start guiding yourself and you need to stick with what you know you're looking for which is a balanced thing a single figure that captures different entities and is a chemical across nations they need to reflect additional factors okay so there are things here that's again this their balance thing we're looking for shift the measurement shift the measurement of GDP so does calculated per capita that isn't mentioned and show the positive effects of monitoring that wasn't mentioned either it's got to be this okay so a single word can or a single phrase can disqualify an answer choice and it's it's more reassuring when you when you know what you're looking for and you cross out the ones that don't match and you use process of elimination okay we're going to move on I'm going to take some time to talk about the essay prompt which is always going to be something along lines of what we're looking out here as you read the passage below consider how the author uses evidence of his facts or examples to support claims reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence for stylistic and persuasive elements such as word choice or appeals to motion to add power to the ideas expressed okay it's important to note and then it will go on to say after you read the passage at the end of the passage there is the assign more the assignment write an essay in which you explain how the author builds an argument how the author builds an argument to persuade is their audience that something what the claim is with the thesis is in your essay analyze how the author uses one or more the features listed above and that was above above the passage more features of your own choice to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of the argument and then it adds your essay should not explain should not explain whether you agree with the author's claims okay do not write about your opinion do not tell us what you think about the author's argument okay your analyzing the way that the author is using different writerly tools persuasive elements to persuade the audience of his or her position explain of the author builds an argument to persuade his or her audience okay so don't just sum it up don't don't spend your time describing what the author is saying you're basically trying to select parts of the argument parts of the passage that that are things that the author is using to build the build the argument this what you're looking at now is another is the unpacking the SAT essay prompt two dots there sorry about those two dots so what this will do this this is a this is a article that is worth or is worth looking at it's called unpacking the essay prompt and the parts that I want to show you are here this is all you should read this in your own time after this session is over it is very useful to kind of understand the do's and don'ts and what is the different what are the different kinds of evidence that the author uses to support claims that could be that could be facts it could be statistics it could be quotations from experts or the author can say that he or she is an expert results results of experiments or other research examples and your job is to figure out what constitutes evidence in a break in their passage and how the author uses it to support his or her claims okay you can read this in your own time let's let's move on okay one um one more thing one two hip is how to manage your time this is just one way to manage your time many people find this effective way to sort of structure the 50 minutes that you have to write the essay and it goes a little something like this we're going to use sq3r in a similar way as used it on the reading passages and what I'm suggesting is that you read the blurb notice that there's no blurb really but you're going to learn what the title is of the passage from which of you know the publication or the the title of this article and that'll help you contextualize it and then you can skim the paragraph headings if you feel like you know that that sort of thing helps you so you should you should practice these things but you should skim and scan and then say to yourself okay why am i interested this interesting what am I going to learn here I'm going to get excited let's do this then you're going to actively annotate as you go along annotation is underlining key underlining claims making the pluses and the minuses and the exclamation points in the question marks it's looking for statistics is looking for data is looking for the names of a you know people who are you know authorities and whatever it is the or studies you know people earth or ities and whatever it is that the the author is talking about you're looking for appeals to logic you're looking for appeals to emotion what are those appeals to logic are things that just make sense okay this it happened like this so it must be like that like that's so using reasoning to to persuade the audience if you it appeals to emotion or or to your sense of justice or your you know makes the reader angry about what the author is writing about makes the make makes the reader afraid of what might happen if a course of action isn't followed or is followed those are appeals to emotion and as you go along you can you know just to make sure that you're still engaged you can sum up each paragraph in your own words as you go along what was that about okay got it that's what reciting is about so you're going to take you know seven to ten minutes to read the passage and to annotate it then you're going to spend five minutes three to five minutes let's say outlining making a plan for what each body paragraph is going to say and one way to do that is to say that okay I notice that the author used a lot of statistics and I'm going to use one body paragraph to talk about the way in which the author uses statistics to build and strengthen the argument and then another body paragraph maybe about the ways that the author uses imagery or uses the repetitive rhythm it would incent within sentences or you know speaks informally to become friends with the reader or is it or is the author speaking in a more more elevated kind of language that it's more formal so you could address those things find examples of those things put them in your body paragraph okay and so you're going to write the essay for for about thirty minutes if it takes 30 35 or 40 you got to be careful because you definitely want to write a conclusion you don't it doesn't look good if you just don't write any conclusion so you've got to write at least one sentence maybe two for a conclusion and then you go back and take the last five minutes to to clean it up a little um maybe you've made a typo you you misspelled something you missed an apostrophe you're those things you know these these little details do matter the read the people who are reading these essays they appreciate legibility it's not going to help you if it's difficult for the reader to understand what it is you're trying to say because they have a hard time reading your handwriting okay so that was the breakneck speed top tips in every single section of the SAT I may have a couple things yes I do lastly I want to just point you in direction of tips for test day which is an article in tips and strategy section Khan Academy fertility practice in which we remind you how important it is to sleep well tonight tomorrow night and Friday night not just Friday night try to get at least eight hours of sleep the next three nights because you really need to start you know you need to recharge your batteries and make make it a priority to be energized and be you know well nourished on test day I there are a couple of questions that have come in that I'm now going to see whether I can quickly answer sure you read the whole passage during the reading section or just skim it that's that's a great question different things work for different people you may find that it's better for you to just read the whole passage first and many people find they like to just skim it and then read the questions and then go back I've worked a lot of students over the years I find that more people on your reading pace it depends on whether you run into time at the end of the section and if the answer is no you don't run out of time I would say read the whole thing you could if you skim it it all depends on how effective a skimmer you are how fluent you are as a skimmer and so if you're if you feel like you understand the main idea of questions sorry the main idea of paragraphs just by skimming then go ahead and skim but if you find that skimming gets you nowhere which I found with a lot of students I've worked with then plan to read the whole thing and plan to read it actively as I indicated earlier in the session for the essay is longer better and is there a minimum number of paragraphs we should write the answer is no longer isn't better but ancillary to that is that short really short is not good so you you definitely want a clear introduction if initely want a clear conclusion you want to have those be separate paragraphs and and two body paragraphs is what you should be aiming for one big long center main body paragraph I'm guessing you know you should you'd be able to subdivide that idea into different into different paragraphs so I would not say there's a strict minimum but I recommend you know three to four paragraphs total and longer is fine too don't repeat yourself you make have each paragraph say one specific thing and support that claim and your topic sentence with evidence that backs it up okay let's see how should I imagine my time during the reading section how do we quickly implement sq3r strategies we don't have a lot of time for passage great question they require some practice you sq3r is really just it's just a way to frame active reading I would argue that with a little bit of practice you can you can underline important words and add little pluses and minuses and question marks and exclamation points and that is an effect that in itself is an effective reading strategy that doesn't take any time I'm not so I'm not suggesting that you write full sentences in the margins because I know that takes time if you find yourself running at a time again and again one thing you can do from a time management perspective is to skip those questions that you look at and you you really can't make sense of it's like a two or three part question or um you can skip those questions you want to make sure to get to every question in the reading section because there are some easier questions waiting for you at the end the last passage is not the most difficult passage so I mean it could be but it usually isn't you know fee so there are easier questions waiting for you at the end don't get hung up on harder questions earlier in a section if it means you're going to run out of time before you have a chance to look at those questions that might be easier for you we're coming up to our our I don't want to keep you guys any longer so come on visit you know visit often thanks for coming it was it was a pleasure to help you and I hope you found it helpful and and leave comments let me know what you thought let me know if there's something that I missed and we will the folks standing by at the College Board folk standing by at Khan Academy and myself will we'll be glad to respond to your comments and and help you out in any way we can but but get back on to a safety practice on Khan Academy do your best and and thanks for coming you're going to do great