- Welcome to the reproductive system
- Anatomy of the male reproductive system
- Transport of sperm via erection and ejaculation
- Basics of egg development
- The ovarian cycle
- Meet the placenta!
- Reproductive cycle graph - Follicular phase
- Reproductive cycle graph - Luteal phase
- Maternal changes in pregnancy
- Labor (parturition)
- Breast anatomy and lactation
The female reproductive cycle involves the maturation of eggs within the ovaries, a process initiated during gestation and activated at puberty. This cycle includes oogenesis, ovulation, and the secretion of female sex hormones. The video also explains the stages of egg development, from oogonia to primary oocytes, secondary oocytes, and finally, the ovum. Created by Vishal Punwani.
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- if i understood correctly, the 1ry oocyte is diploid, so when it devides into 2ry oocyte and 1st polar body it becomes haploid. now the 2ry oocyte has a number of chromosomes of 1n, but it also gives a 2nd polar body when 2nd miotic division is about to complete(in fertilization). so if the 2ry oocyte is having a haploid number of chromosomes, where did the chromosomes in the 2nd polar body come from?(11 votes)
- The secondary oocyte undergoes meiosis II, which is just like mitosis. So,the 2nd polar body has the the same no. of chromosomes as the secondary oocyte.(3 votes)
- So at6:40, the female gamete is only considered to be an "ovum" in the short period of time where the sperm has fused with the egg, but before the nuclei of the egg and sperm have fused. right?
I've heard people reference a female egg cell as an "ovum" but, after watching this, calling a female egg a "oocyte" seems more appropriate since an oocyte is the actual contribution the female makes. So why do people use ovum synonymously with egg cell?(8 votes)
- I read more info to make sure I was clear on when to call it an ovum. If fertilization occurs, the 2nd meiotic division produces a second polar body and an OVUM. The fusion of the 2 nuclei cannot occur until the second polar body is released, and the secondary oocyte must mature into an ootid and then an ovum. Then the nuclei fuse to form a zygote.(8 votes)
- What about those cases where more than 1 egg ovulates either on the same day but maybe a few hours apart or a few days apart(This few days apart can happen in superfetation(becoming pregnant when you are already pregnant because of delayed implantation) or if a woman has 2 female reproductive tracts(This can happen due to the septum not forming and then going away))?
If the 2 or more eggs come out of the same ovary is it because of extra mitotic divisions occuring for some reason or is it because of extra estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH, and GnRH being produced?(5 votes)
- what would happen if the egg is fertilized while it is still in the ovary(which is possible)?(4 votes)
- This is not accurate. Fertilization nearly always occurs in the fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancy may occur about 10 days after the fertilization during implantation if a zygote implants itself anywhere except the uterine lining.(4 votes)
- Why 2-4 million eggs are produced because a woman has menopause at age of around 40 and not all of them are released from the ovaries and what happens to the rest of the eggs then ?(2 votes)
- The remaining eggs simply degrade in the ovaries which atrophy or get smaller and make less estrogen and progesterone. Why questions are hard to answer. Similarly, each male ejaculate has millions of sperm, which is quite excessive since typically only one egg would be waiting to be fertilized.(3 votes)
- Does the second step (Meiosis II) of Meiosis occur before the sperm's nucleus fuses with the egg's nucleus ? Or when the sperm fuses with the egg cell, but before the nucleus or chromosomes fuse?(2 votes)
- Meiosis 2 occurs after the nucleus of the sperm cell has penetrated the egg cell but before the 2 nuclei fuse to form a zygote.(2 votes)
- Broooo, I dont understand:at7:00you say if the cell doesnt get fertilized, it doesnt become an ovum. However you said prior, that the secondary oocyte becomes an ovum before it is fertilized by the sperm nucleus to form a zygote. Please clarify, are you creating a distinction between fusion and fertilization?(2 votes)
- The secondary oocyte leaves the ovary and travels down the fallopian tube. The secondary oocyte has stopped the process of meiosis 2 and is in metaphase 2, waiting. If no sperm fertilizes the secondary oocyte, then it remains a secondary oocyte and it leaves the body in the next menses (it never becomes an ovum). If the secondary oocyte is fertilized or fuses with the sperm, then the sperm enters the secondary oocyte and the sperm loses its flagella and prepares for further interactions, but it waits to the side. Meanwhile, the secondary oocyte NOW completes meiosis 2 and becomes an ovum! Now, as an ovum, it can interact with the 'sperm'. The ovum and the sperm nuclei then swell and become pro-nuclei, spindle fibers form and their chromosomes finally intermix. Fertilization is now completed and the cell is diploid and is called a zygote. The zygote then begins the process of division by mitosis and by the time it gets to the uterus it is a mass of cells or a morula. Unfortunately, there are a lot of words here and the words fusion and fertilization are used interchangeably. The main point is that the sperm always complete meiosis 1 and 2 and are mature haploid cells after leaving the epididymis of the testes, while the secondary oocyte leaves the ovary and still has to complete meoisis 2, and only does that IF it is fertilized. I hope this helps. Again, check out Wikipedia and the Open Stax book for more details. https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology(2 votes)
- I was told that for both spermatogenesis and oogenesis, the spermatogonia/oogonia undergoes mitosis to form one primary spermatocyte/oocyte and one spermatogonium/oogonium to maintain the cycle of the process. Can anyone confirm this?(2 votes)
- So let's look at the female reproductive cycle. The female reproductive cycle refers to the maturation of eggs within the ovaries. The ovaries initially created these eggs during gestation. In other words, when a baby girl is in her mother's womb, the baby girl's entire egg supply will be created but will remain in an inactive state. This process of egg creation is called oogenesis. Then, once she grows up a bit and reaches puberty, her reproductive cycle will start, and one egg in that egg supply in her ovaries will mature or become activated each month, and that allows it to be fertilized by sperm. By the way, another word for egg is oocyte. After an egg matures, it's pushed out of the ovary in a process called ovulation. The other major function of the ovaries is to secrete the female sex hormones, estrogen, progesterone, and one called inhibin, and we'll talk about their functions a little bit later on. So let's first discuss how the eggs are made in the ovary in the first place. So early in uteral development, precursor germ cells, which are called oogonia, and those are homologous to spermatagonia in males, these oogonia undergo a ton of mitotic divisions to make more of themselves. And then, at about the 7th month of development, these divisions stop, and all of the ones that have been produced, which is actually about two to four million, are all she'll have for the rest of her life, and that turns out to be about one to two million per ovary. So while she's still in fetal development, all of these oogonia that have been produced, they all develop into the next stage, which is a primary oocyte. And just remember that the two oo's refers to egg, and the cyte, C-Y-T-E, refers to cell. So this just means egg cell, in case you were wondering. And let me also just mention, on a chromosomal level these oogonia, the germ cells, they're 2n, which means they have two copies of each chromosome, and the primary oocytes are the same. They're also 2n. And then these primary oocytes, they begin meiosis 1, and meiosis is what our germ cells use to reduce our chromosome copy number, and by that, I just mean the number of copies of DNA that we have. So they start this process of meiosis 1, but they don't actually finish it. They just kind of get about halfway through, and then they stop. So they're stuck as these big cells. So they're still primary oocytes, but they're said to be in meiotic arrest. So when the female who's been developing in her mom's womb, when she's born, her primary oocytes are in meiotic arrest. So the question is, do they stay like this? And the answer is, some do and some don't. Let's zoom in on this reproductive system to try to explain. So this is just a closeup of the major parts of the female reproductive system, and I've cut away parts of the uterus and the uterine tubes and the ovaries so you can see sort of the inside and the outsides of both structures. And this is our key organ here. This is the ovary. So the question was, do these primary oocytes that are stuck in meiotic arrest, do they stay like that? So the answer is that the ones that are sort of destined to be ovulated, that is, to be pushed out of the ovary right about here and then to be picked up by the fimbriae and then travel along the uterine tube here, those ones get past meiotic arrest. But most of them sort of die off while they're still stuck in that meiotic arrest phase as a primary oocyte. So I've mentioned the ones that sort of get out of the meiotic arrest phase and move on to develop into secondary oocytes that are able to then fuse with sperm, but when exactly does that happen? Well, it starts at puberty. So they actually stay in this phase as primary oocytes up here, in meiotic arrest for like 12 to 13 years, give or take, and only then do they start moving forward with development by finishing off that first part of meiosis that they started and splitting into two secondary oocytes. And actually, that's not exactly true, even though that's what we'd expect. What actually happens is one primary occyte it attempts to split into two secondary oocytes, but that's not exactly what happens. What does happen is that one of the developing daughter cells develops beautifully into a normal secondary oocyte from the primary oocyte, but it turns out that when they do complete the first part of meiosis, something really interesting happens. One of these cells receives basically all the cytoplasm. So the chromosome copy number is halved, but basically all the cytoplasm is kept in one cell. So this little guy over here that didn't get much cytoplasm, it still has a full complement of chromosomes, but it still ends up being pretty small and not really very functional. So it kind of withers away and dies, and it's called a polar body. So you end up with this really large secondary oocyte, and this is what ends up getting ovulated. And so now you might be thinking, well, meiosis is two steps, right? When does the second step happen? And that's a good question. So again, ovulation happens roughly here with the secondary oocyte coming out, and this secondary oocyte sort of just hangs out in the uterine tubes, and a sperm comes along and fertilizes the egg. So let's look at that down here. So you have your uterine tube here, and you have your egg. That's a secondary oocyte now. And then a sperm is coming along, and the sperm fuses with the egg after fertilizing it. And so the sperm fertilizes the egg and fuses with it. And so, let's just zoom in on what's happening there. So here you have your big secondary oocyte, and then you have your sperm that sort of, let's say that the nucleus of the sperm is right here. It's inside the egg already. This is the nucleus of the sperm. And here's the nucleus of the secondary oocyte. Well this is when meiosis 2 happens, so the second half of meiosis. So as this sperm nucleus is traveling toward the egg nucleus to create a joint nucleus, meiosis 2 occurs, and the oocyte reduces its chromosome copy number by creating another polar body, so a second polar body that kind of divides off the cell. So the oocyte cuts its chromosome copy number in half again, and so this little bit of DNA here that's just an extra copy of the DNA the egg already has, it divides off the cell in the form of another polar body that doesn't really have that much cytoplasm, just like the first one. So again, it leaves its nutrient-rich cytoplasm behind for the sperm and the egg. And by the way, the egg has changed its name now from a secondary oocyte to an ovum, but it won't be an ovum for long. Once the sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus, then it becomes a zygote. So let me just clarify that if the egg doesn't get fertilized by a sperm that comes along, then it doesn't complete that second meiotic division that it did right here, and it just gets discharged from the body in menstruation as a secondary oocyte and not as an ovum, because the name ovum is reserved for the oocyte only once it's been fertilized. So those are the basic concepts behind what goes on with egg development.