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Video transcript

all right let's take a look at globalization and some of the theories and different perspectives about it in general globalization is the sharing of culture and money and products between countries that is happening because of international trade and advances in transportation and communication you might think that globalization is a recent development but really international trade as influence changes to cross borders for centuries silk and spice trade routes through East Asia that began as early as the first century BCE introduced different cultures and linked the economies of different nations as did the English and Dutch shipping empires in the 16th century globalization is also a social process where people become more and more aware by the cultures and people's across geographical political and social borders the economic interdependence of different countries as well as advancements and communication technology and the progress of technology in general have all contributed to globalization there are many theories of globalization let's look at world Systems Theory first world Systems Theory focuses on the importance of the world as a unit rather than looking at individual countries it divides the world into three regions core countries periphery countries and semi-periphery countries core countries include areas like Western Europe and the United States these countries have a strong central government with enough tax to support it they are economically diversified industrialized and relatively independent of outside control they've strong middle and working classes and focus on higher scale production of material goods rather than raw materials periphery countries are those in Latin America and Africa and tend to have a relatively weak government they tend to depend on only one type of economic activity like extracting raw materials there's a high percentage of poor and uneducated people as well as a small upper class which controls most the economy and this creates a huge inequality in the population these countries are greatly influenced by core countries and transnational corporations which can harm the future economic potentials of the periphery countries semi-periphery countries like India and Brazil make up the middle ground between core and per free they are often not dominant in international trade but they have a relatively diversified and developed economy these semi-periphery countries can come either from periphery countries moving up towards the industrialized core countries or from core countries declining towards periphery status the world Systems Theory is a fluid model but it is criticized for being too focused on the economy and the core countries and forgetting about culture or even the class struggles of individual countries then we have modernization theory which proposes that all countries follow a similar path of development from a traditional to a modern society it assumes that with some help traditional countries can develop into modern countries in the same way that today's modern countries developed in the first place it looks at the internal social dynamics as the country adapts to new technologies and the political and social changes that occur dependency theory was a reaction to modernization theory and uses the idea of core and periphery countries from the world Systems Theory to look at the inequalities between countries basically it is the idea that periphery or third world countries or poor and export resources to the wealthy core or first world countries not because they are in an earlier stage of development but because they have been integrated into the world system as an undeveloped country they have their own structures and features not seen in developed countries and will not accelerate to become a developed nation they are in an unfavorable economic position that means they don't even have the opportunity to improve and develop they'll remain poor and dependent on wealthier nations these are just a few of the theories of globalization there are lots more that look at culture or social networking economy politics or even goods the world is now a busy and bustling place where events and things can have an effect around the globe there are different ways of looking at globalization to the hyper globalist perspective sees globalization as a legitimate process a new age in human history countries economies become interdependent as the nations say themselves become significantly less important the many individual countries become one global society though theorists don't agree whether this is good or bad the sceptical perspective is critical of globalization and considers today's international processes as becoming regionalized rather than globalized countries borders are not becoming less important the third-world countries aren't being integrated into the global economy with the same benefits as first world countries skeptics don't believe that the current economy is leading towards global capitalism transnational corporations are still tied to their home country and national borders are as important as ever then you have the transformational is perspective which doesn't have either a specific cause or a specific outcome they believe that national governments are changing perhaps becoming less important but it is difficult to describe the change so simply as to the strong stance skeptics take on the marginalization of the third world countries transformational is again just see that the world order is changing into what specific patterns they are uncertain just that a new world order design is developing they state that there are many factors that influence the change of the world patterns but that the outcomes of these changes is just not known globalization has caused many changes in society it is allowed for international terrorism and civil unrest as different nations are inundated by foreign cultures it has also created a world economy where different countries are interdependent on each other promoting a global community