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Emotions: limbic system

Created by Jeffrey Walsh.
Video transcript
so stop at Alembic system what is the limbic system well it's a set of structures in the brain in many of those structures play an important role in regulating emotion as he gets kind of confusing me talk about the limbic system is experts can't actually agree on what structures make up the entire limbic system so for our purposes I'm going to dress in the most important structures and ones that everyone pretty much agrees are part of limbic system now before I get going to the nitty-gritty so to speak I want to give you a quick overview instructors wanna talk about the way I remember these structures is usable cartoon year is a hippopotamus and he's wearing a hat and a wiseass hippopotamus wearing a stylish hat well this is my way of remembering the four most important components the limbic system when it comes to motion so we see hippopotamus here right hip oh and we see him wearing a hat right to have now for this to be a mnemonic has to be something useful and the reason I think this is these deforming structures Linux system when it comes to emotion so hat stands for both elements a for amygdala be four thousand menace and hippo short for hippocampus these have to be the four structures that like to talk about so let's get to a little more complicated diagram and what you see here is my best attempt at drawing the limbic system and limbic system structures sit on top of the brain stem and this is the brain stem and you can imagine this as the very bottom of your brain and here's the spinal cord coming out of the spinal cord goes all the way down your back about your tailbone now the limbic system are these structures up here that were drawn in bright colors now to get new to this diagram this is what you would see if you pulled off like the top part of your brain which is called the cortex and facing in this direction and the words while this is an anatomically correct to say your eyes are here you know is here in your mouth is here again this is not anatomically correct but this you can see as the front and this is the back angles kinda get a 3d idea so let's remove this go back to talking about the anatomical structures so this blue thing here this is called a columnist you actually have two of these one here and one of the other side here thousands functions as like a sensory relay station meaning the things that you see hear taste touch all these senses you have come through your nerves and ultimately end up in your thalamus and the thalamus directs these senses into the appropriate areas in the cortex as well as other areas of the brain and I mention this in terms of an emotion lecture because emotions are very contingent on the things that you see things that you touch and here you may have noticed there's one sense that I didn't mention in a sense of smell and the sense of smell actually is the only sense that you have actually bypasses the stalin mess instead has its own private relay station that when it comes to the news it goes to a certain area in the brain and the brain actually have to be very close to other areas that regulate emotion which explains why sometimes certain sense can invoke very powerful memories and bring you back to a certain moment in time but in terms of emotion I mentioned that is because of how the census play an important role in your emotions are you see here there's these two purple structures this is known as in amygdala door and the amygdala sometimes called the aggression center and experiments have actually shown that you stimulate the amygdala you can produce feelings of anger and violence as well as fear and anxiety could stimulate represented as a dark green plus sign to stimulate the amygdala invokes feelings of anger violence fear and anxiety on the other hand if you've destroyed your Magdala represent destruction has read negative sign destroy the amygdala can cause a very mellow in effect right mellow and the smell in effect in the context of a destroyed amygdala actually noted by a psychologist named dr. Kluver neurosurgeon by name of dr. busey dimension movie review see because in medicine there's actually a syndrome known as Kluver Bucy syndrome and that's when there's a bilateral destruction of your amygdala bilateral means both have bilateral destruction of the amygdala is that can result in certain symptoms that are often seen like hyper orality which means you put things in their mouths alot also hypersexuality as well as dis inhibited behavior and this inhibited behavior when you ignore social conventions you can act very impulsively you don't consider the risks of your behavior so you do dangerous reckless things so that's Kluver Bucy syndrome and that's again when you destroy both sides of your miglin's no way I remember this is I think if you stimulate the amygdala is that can cause fear and anxiety and people have things I T disorders were experiencing anxiety attack sometimes are given a medication known as a benzodiazepine sometimes called benzos and he's benzodiazepine medications function pharmacologically very similar to alcohol and think of what happens when people consumed too much alcohol to nancy c these types of behaviors you see hyper orality maybe ed a lot you might have hypersexuality and of course you get dis inhibited behavior and give the person with a lampshade on their head there during certain social conventions because of the effect of alcohol so that time ever the effective stimulating vs destroying the amygdala and its green structure here you see curving around the soundness is known as the hippocampus and hippocampus plays a key role in forming new memories what it does is it helps to convert your short-term memory previous it has STM helps convert that short-term memory to your long-term memory and mentioned that in this conversation because we think back in your memories whether short-term memory or long-term memory his memories can evoke emotions as well as the hippocampus is important structure in forming long-term memories and people would damage to this area they have difficulty forming new memories so everything that they experience just basically fades away now what's interesting about this is if you're hippocampus is destroyed while you can't form new memories you still have your old memories intact so your long-term memory functions just fine that's the hippocampus and lastly this orange structure here is our in structure is the hypothalamus and hypo means below so hypothalamus is below the thalamus here's a found this and its below it that's where it gets its name from the hypothalamus is actually a very time structure in this diagram here really exaggerated the size of the hypothalamus thalamus is so small it actually makes up less than 1% of the total volume of your brain about the size of a kidney bean in the hypothalamus plays an incredible role in regulating so many functions in your body but for our purposes we're talking about Olympic system structures in terms of emotion so when it comes to emotion hypothalamus you can think of is regulating you are never system previous ans if you're not nervous system you can think of as fight or flight vs rest in the chest now I'm going to discuss this further in a different video right now just think of it as regulating the autonomic nervous system it does by controlling the endocrine system by triggering the release of hormones into your bloodstream and some of these hormones that are triggered to release are things like epinephrine and norepinephrine and epinephrine is actually very commonly known as adrenaline so we were thinking the phrase like a lot of adrenaline pumping through your veins that's actually being regulated by the hypothalamus thalamus is also involved in regulating other basic drives like hunger thirst sleep sex but in terms of emotion i think is most important to note that it regulates the autonomic nervous system that fighter flight or rest and digest response so that's one big system and he's the four basic structures thalamus amygdala hippocampus and hypothalamus these are the basic structure of the limbic system