If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content

MCAT Mini passage: Treatment for Ebola hemorrhagic fever


Ebola hemorrhagic fever begins with fever and flu-like symptoms that occur when phagocytic cells encounter the virus and release an excess of cytokines. In the terminal stages of the disease, the virus infects endothelial cells, compromising them completely and eventually leading to hypovolemic shock. Though there is no vaccine for the virus, several experimental drugs have shown promise in treating Ebola. The most successful treatments use monoclonal antibody (mAb) mixtures, such as MB-003 and ZMAb.
Recently, a group of scientists performed a trial using optimized mixtures that combined the best components of MB-003 and ZMAb. They investigated the effect of the resulting two cocktails, Zmapp1 and Zmapp2, on groups of Rhesus macaques infected with Ebola. A control group was given non-specific adjuvants but no monoclonal antibodies. Drugs were administered on days 3, 6, and 9 after the infection, and survival rates of each group are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Survival rate of Rhesus macaques after infection with Ebola virus
Adapted from Qiu et al. 2014. Reversion of advanced Ebola virus disease in nonhuman primates with ZMapp. Nature doi:10.1038/nature13777
A potential Ebola vaccine and efficient monoclonal antibody therapy to cure Ebola disease constitute two different types of adaptive immunity. What are they?
Choose 1 answer: