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Current time:0:00Total duration:7:16

Video transcript

social stigma is the really extreme disapproval and discrediting of an individual by society but actually stigma comes in two different forms the first is social stigma and the second is self stigma now when we mentioned social stigma what are we talking about well social stigma can be fueled or associated with several other key concepts and these include stereotypes prejudices and discrimination one the challenges is that the degree of overlap between stereotypes prejudices and discrimination and stigma is not entirely clear and appears to be somewhat variable depending on the source we commonly encounter social stigma when we are looking at conditions such as medical or mental health conditions or other issues such as sexual orientation or criminality a sigma against mental health is a major challenge so let's try and look at that a little bit more closely in this example in this example many individuals may believe that the mentally ill are violent this is an example of a stereotype in that it involves a belief or a cognition that is generalized to a population if this cognition subsequently leads on to a negative emotion or a negative effect being associated with it then this then would be an example of a prejudice in our example if I start to become scared of the mentally ill that would be a prejudice finally if through stereotypes and prejudices we actually have a change in our behavior this can lead to discrimination a discriminatory behavior would be if we are scared of the mentally ill we may not want to live close to them or for example hire them in our workplace social stigma and the compulsive social stigma can vary a great deal by the socio-political context sexual orientation for example now that we've mentioned social stigma let let us look at self stigma and one of the things that can happen with an individual is that they can really internalize all the negative stereotypes prejudices and discriminatory experiences that they have as they internalize these negative stereotypes prejudices and discriminatory behaviors they may feel rejected by society they may feel like they need to avoid interacting the society they may really struggle to come to grips for their condition for example someone who has HIV or AIDS and really feels the social stigma may go into denial and deny to themselves that they have the condition and not receive medical follow-up they may also experience hits on their self-esteem or suffer from other mental health conditions such as depression and then they them themselves may display behaviors that really isolate them from society and stop them from even attempting to take part in education vocation thereby further isolating them so it appears that not only is the stigma directed from society and other groups towards an individual is important but also the stigma that's directed by the individual towards him or herself is also important let us also consider studying stigma by using these concentric circles in the middle I'm going to label the first circle as self representing the individual who is stigmatized the second circle shall represent the family or the close social group the third circle shall represent wider society and finally the fourth circle shall represent and things external society but that are very important such as the media one thing that we should appreciate is that there are bi-directional relationships between all of these groups such as the self and the family the self and society the self and the media and also in between all these groups such as society and family such as the media and society so let's have a closer look at these groups as we peel off the concentric circles let's start by looking at the influence of the media the media is a major source of stigma because it can have depictions of various conditions as being violent dangerous or representing moral failings as as is commonly the case when we encounter representations of mental illness in the media but it can also be encountered in other conditions are depicted in the media such as HIV and AIDS obesity and people who have substance use problems a useful intervention at this point is a development of guidelines for journalists to try and decrease the amount of stigma that is present in the media and there's several different sets of guidelines and suggestions in order to do this and when we mentioned media we know that social media is also a huge component now let's move on to society society is also very important because this is where the interactions between the self and society involve things like education employment health care stigmatizing views by employers by healthcare providers and can really diminish the access of individuals to earning an income to gain the appropriate level of health care to in even turning off a screening getting follow-up and an important intervention at this point is the use of legislation and anti-discrimination laws now let's consider the family now the interesting thing here is that the family can not only be shunned by society if they have somebody with stigmatizing condition but the family may also shun the individual themselves in this example we may often see somebody in the family who has a stigmatizing condition to be hidden kept away from the family to really be isolated and always kept as a secret within the family so if we look at our concentric circles the family can be stigmatized by society but can also stigmatize the individual so this also may be detrimental to personal or intimate relationships so at this point interventions such as therapy and education are also very important finally we reach the very core of the structure which is the individual with the condition or the self and in this case we know that all these different interactions media society and the family the individual can internalize a lot of this different stigma and that can lead to them avoiding situations denying the existence of their condition suffering from mental health conditions and no longer really participating this site in society useful interventions at this point would be to educate the patient to give them access to resources support groups and these resources will really help them to understand they're not alone