- Perception, prejudice, and bias questions
- Attribution Theory - Basic covariation
- Attribution theory - Attribution error and culture
- Stereotypes stereotype threat and self fulfilling prophecies
- Emotion and cognition in prejudice
- Prejudice and discrimination based on race, ethnicity, power, social class, and prestige
- Stigma - Social and self
- Social perception - Primacy recency
- Social perception - The Halo Effect
- Social perception - The Just World Hypothesis
- Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism in group and out group
Created by Arshya Vahabzadeh.
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- students usually remember the first 10 minutes and the last 10 minutes of a lecture aka the primacy effect and the recency effect yet traditional brick and mortar universities as well as primary schools keep class time much longer, why are traditional schools so resistant to progress or doing what's best for the customers i.e. students?
- They are resistant to change, unless it involves charging the students more money, in which case they will change that in a heartbeat.(39 votes)
- What is this specific effect called? I forget what the curve is called I know it was discussed in the memory portion of KA behavioral sciences videos.(1 vote)
- The recency bias is relative, though, isn't it? Unless the person dies and the most recent behavior is their last (for example, someone who may have always been good was caught stealing drugs for his sick wife and that's what he is primarily remembered for when he died in prison later), the most recent behavior can always progress into past behavior.(1 vote)
- [Voiceover] I'm sure you've heard of the term first impressions count. It's because it's a common line of thought that your first impression is pretty important. And it's important because it's long, strong, and easily built upon. Now, what do I mean by each of these? Well, it's long, so when a first impression is formed, it tends to last a long time, whether it's positive or negative. Two, it's strong, so once someone has a first impression of you, it's pretty hard to overcome that. And three, it's easily built upon, so this is a little bit more subtle. And what this means is that when someone has a first impression of you, they will subsequently really kind of put extra emphasis on bits of information that helps to support that first impression. So if someone thinks that you're really messy, they may not put as much emphasis on the fact that your desk is tidy every single day afterwards. But if you've been in your room or something else is not quite right or your bin is overflowing, they may go, ah-ha, look, I knew it, that helps to support my first impression that this is a messy person. And when we think about first impression and the fact that it actually seems to be more important than other bits of data, it's called the primacy bias. Now, that's the first bit of data. Let's think about other bits of data that might be useful. Have you ever heard the term you're only as good as your last game? You're only as good as your last match? You're only as good as your last cheeseburger? Well, what does this suggest? This suggests that your most recent actions are also very important. And people will place a lot of emphasis on your recent actions and your recent performance. And it appears that compared to past performances, your recent performance may have some extra weight to it. This also has a name. And this is called the recency bias. So what I want to do is look at the graph at the bottom of the screen. And I want to label the axis. So the vertical axis is going to be retention. And this is really talking about memory. And the horizontal axis is time. And this graph can actually represent bits of data, as in some experiments have been done, they look at a certain sequence of items that somebody has to remember, or we can think about it as the social data that somebody can obtain from encounters. And I'm actually going to draw a graph for you. And what this graph represents is the time periods in which we seem to recall most information and the information seems to be most important to us. And if we look at this graph and we think about, first of all, the primacy bias, we see that the first chunk of information that we get over here seems to be pretty important. And also later on, the second chunk of information that we get, the recency bias, also appears to be pretty important. And in the middle we have a period of time which is of quite variable duration, given that this graph can apply to lots of different events or a specific event. And the information during this time period seems to be not as important as information that we have very early on or very recently. Even within this middle period if there was a significant event or something that's really memorable, so for example, if the person does something that elicits a prominent, emotional response in you or is very unusual, you may very well have a blip and you remember that event much more, or if it's a sequence of items that you're trying to remember, in the middle of the items you see a picture of a close family member and all the other items are fairly nondescript, you may have a big blip there. But in general, if all the items are pretty much the items you're going to remember in a memory test are pretty much the same or the person's events are pretty typical in a day-to-day basis, the earlier events that we can see on this chart and the most recent events will be the most memorable for you. So it appears that when we form impressions of other people, the most important parts of forming an impression are one, the early impressions that we form because they're long, strong, and easily built upon, and two, the most recent actions a person has done towards us. Everything else in the middle seems to be not quite as important. There was a bit of debate whether the primacy bias or the recency bias is stronger. And I think it may very well vary on the situation. And there's no unanimous verdict at the moment.