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Current time:0:00Total duration:7:13

Video transcript

prejudice is made up of several different components the first component that we have is a fundamental underlying thought over generalized belief otherwise known as a cognition we often refer to these as stereotypes the second aspect to prejudice is that it carries with it an emotional component like anger or a strong dislike and we term that an effect or affective component and thirdly prejudice consists of a propensity to carry out a behavior to act on the prejudice and when somebody does that it actually turns into discrimination so as I'd only mentioned the cognition that a thought can otherwise be called a stereotype and the tendency to leto behavior when a prejudicial way of thinking actually leads to a behavioral change that's term discrimination so we can already see that we can break down prejudice into into these three areas well when we think about prejudice um is there a kind of personality factor play and there is a line of thinking to suggest that yeah there is a type of personality that could be more susceptible to prejudice and that's called the authoritarianism mail it rejects lots of laces because people with authoritarian personality they're kind of pretty um militaristic in some ways they kind of listen to their superiors they're pretty obedient to their superiors I should say but on the other hand they don't really have much sympathy or caring for people they deemed to be inferior to themselves they can actually be pretty oppressive to people that are under them and they are pretty rigid thinkers pretty inflexible with their who have viewpoints some of you may be thinking that's not doesn't sound like a lot of fun well one of the things that we think about when we think about these people we think that perhaps they actually had quite harsh upbringing they had they probably underwent a lot of disciplining themselves when they were growing up and people with this authoritarian personality they actually use they actually use prejudice to help them cope with their worldview it's actually protective of their ego and Prejudice avoids them having to confront the unacceptable aspects of themselves they're always focusing on other people and how other people behave and how other people act and how much they hate or don't like other people now this authoritarian personality this is actually quite controversial and I should mention that and you have to know that not everybody agrees with this jack-jack boot personality type and one other things you think about if it's a personality type it's going to be difficult to change and that makes interventions to reduce prejudice by targeting authoritarian personalities more difficult so what if it's not to do with personality what if it's to do with moreso emotion rather than personality but one of the ideas that has come up is the idea that something like frustration so somebody getting very frustrated and that can actually in some ways lead to a prejudice well how exactly does that when somebody's frustrated one of the thoughts is that they become frustrated and that frustration very often turns into these aggressive impulses right so for example you are working in a very low paid job you get really frustrated and you start to get angry and you start to get aggressive and you start to get aggressive towards your employer for giving you such a crummy low paid job well one of the challenges is that if you start getting really aggressive to employer boom you may lose your job and you may not necessarily want that so if you don't become aggressive to your employer if you start bottling up this aggression is going to keep mounting up so what do some people do some people may take this aggression over here and may reach handle it somewhere else so instead of the employer they may reach annal it minorities this is much more acceptable in many ways because when they do that they're not going to lose it they're not going to lose their job they can displace out their aggression towards other people minorities different racial groups and what do we think they're doing here they're doing something we call scapegoating so they are literally taking this frustration that's turning into aggression instead of putting out their employer other powerful figure that is going to be disadvantaged them they will reach and lit towards a different group of individuals and historically we have seen that throughout the world throughout the end the US throughout Europe in particular times of like economic hardship and disadvantage and this theory is called the frustration-aggression hypothesis in line with the frustration-aggression hypothesis I want to tell you about another hypothesis and this is called the hypothesis of relative deprivation now what the hypothesis of relative deprivation suggest is that people become very frustrated and you get up the upsurge in prejudice and discrimination when people feel deprived or something they feel entitled to and there's a discrepancy between what their expectations are and what they actually get so let's look at this let's look at this graph here and let's label the axes label the horizontal axis is time and label the vertical axis as say standards of living so if our expectation is that living standards increase gradually over time and this is what we expect and then what we actually get is this so as you can see living standards actually don't increase with time actually tend to drop off maybe because of some economic problem we're left with a difference and it's this difference that is the relative deprivation and it's the extent and how quickly that relative deprivation comes about that can lead to collective unrest and upsurge in prejudice and also discrimination that's the behavioral component that can occur after prejudice so actually the frustration-aggression hypothesis and the hypothesis of relative deprivation these two things are linked