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Stereotypes stereotype threat, and self fulfilling prophecy

Stereotyping involves attributing traits to a group, which can be inaccurate but helps us quickly process social information. Stereotype threat shows exposure to negative stereotypes can decrease performance. Prejudice adds an emotional component to stereotyping, while discrimination involves behavior. This can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, where initial stereotypes seem increasingly true over time.

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  • piceratops ultimate style avatar for user Jedburgh80
    Kaplan states that self-fulfilling prophecy usually involves expectation of an individual whereas stereotype threat is expectation upon a group?
    (2 votes)
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    • leafers ultimate style avatar for user Mitchell Dittus
      I have the book open now. They say stereotype threat is the anxiousness that one feels about confirming a negative stereotype. This anxiousness can lead to actually confirming the negative stereotype which would then be a self-fulfilling prophecy.
      So stereotype threat can lead to a self fulfilling prophecy
      (12 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user qudratullah qadiri
    As there are stereotype threats that influence negative stereotypes for weaker performance, can the opposite occur with positive stereotypes and stronger performances?
    (2 votes)
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  • starky sapling style avatar for user $p@rK3d
    Is it possible for a positive stereotype to have a negative affect? For example, can someone stereotyped as smart have that positive stereotype affect them in a negative way?
    (1 vote)
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    • leaf orange style avatar for user August Berning
      Non-Official answer: Maybe they wouldn't study as much then? Also, constant pressure to excel makes failure land harder, which may lead to an inferiority complex.

      Example 1: if there was a stereotype that people with Orange Leaf avatars on Khan Academy will do very well at math, I may study less math and fall behind other people.

      Example 2: if there was a stereotype that people with Orange Leaf avatars on Khan Academy will do very well at math, and I am only average at it, I may feel like a failure among Orange Leaves, and that I will always disappoint, and that I am a shame to us Orange Leaves.
      (2 votes)
  • piceratops ultimate style avatar for user tian1di2 jax
    is stereotype threat the reason 'traditional' and/or religious families push girls to susie homemakers roles and boys to blue collar work?
    (0 votes)
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    • blobby green style avatar for user kbrown6
      It could also be that people in traditional and/or religious families typically have more authoritarian personalities and are thus more likely to follow rules (e.g. strictly follow prescribed gender roles without questioning them). Or, as the comment above mentions, it could also just be tradition and family values that they have passed down to them and continue to follow.
      (4 votes)
  • duskpin ultimate style avatar for user Ashlie Bloom
    Does anyone know what the difference is between Self Fulfilling Prophecy and Behavioral Confirmation Bias?
    (1 vote)
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    • blobby green style avatar for user kbrown6
      I think that your definition of self fulfilling prophecy is fine, but I do not think the definition of confirmation bias is quite correct with that scenario. Confirmation bias would be if the guy thought he was a moral person so he only paid attention to the moral things he did and either rationalized his immoral actions to make them seem more moral, or ignored them completely. The scenario you described above seems more like cognitive dissonance to me. He is uncomfortable with his immoral actions and wants his actions to align with his opinion of himself as a moral being, so he always teaches and talks about morals to appear more moral himself.
      (1 vote)
  • aqualine ultimate style avatar for user Jorge R. Martinez Perez-Tejada
    how important is it to prevent people from stereotyping or to teach them how to overcome the natural tendency to overgeneralize to prevent any form of discrimination in our society?
    (0 votes)
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    • blobby green style avatar for user kbrown6
      I don't think people will every really overcome their natural tendency to stereotype as it allows people to process lots of information quickly and make decision on how to act without requiring too much energy. However, it is important to teach people how stereotyping can be a dangerous tool if not used correctly. For example, stereotypes can can lead to discrimination and oppression of groups of people such that it affects the individuals and their offspring for generations to come (e.g. many stereotypes about people of color, stereotypes about transgender individuals and the debate over bathroom choice, etc.). When stereotyping leads to prejudice and discrimination, even if unconscious and unintentional, then it is harmful and should corrected.
      (2 votes)

Video transcript

- Okay, so what do you think about people who wear glasses? I think people who wear glasses look incredibly intelligent. In fact, I think just wearing a pair of glasses can add ten points to your IQ. What about people who live in cities? I thought people who live in cities to be abrasive, to be rude, to be terribly impolite. What am I doing by making these comments? Well, what I'm doing is I am stereotyping. And what stereotyping means is that I'm attributing a certain sorts, a certain cognition, to a group of individuals. I am over generalizing. And stereotyping doesn't just involve a pair of glasses, not what people wear or where they live, but it can also involve race, gender, culture, religion, even shoe size, so it can be pretty all-encompassing. Doesn't stereotyping have some disadvantages? Yeah and it should be somewhat obvious. A major disadvantage is that it's pretty inaccurate. On the other hand, does stereotyping have an advantage? The answer is yes. Stereotyping actually allows us to rapidly assess large amounts of social information. So in that regard, it's actually a useful tool, even though it does have its drawbacks. What I want to do now is to talk to you about a different concept and this is, again, perhaps a negative characteristic of stereotyping. And this is the concept of stereotype threat. Let's take two groups of students. One, the red students and two, the blue students. And these students are two equally capable group of students. And now let's make them sit in exam. How do they score? How do they test? When this situation, their scores are equal. They're the same, both red and blue get the same score. Now let's do something else. Let's make them sit their exam but this time, let's expose the students to some negative stereotypes about the blue students not being good at exams, not being academic. Well, what happens now? Well, the red students score the same, but this time we noticed the blue students take a hit in their performance. Their performance drops. But this is what we see as being the stereotype threat. This is when the exposure to a negative stereotype surrounding a task can actually cause a decrease in the performance of an individual when attempting a task. So here the stereotype actually threatens performance. Now since I've been talking about city folk, city dwellers being so rude, let's put that down here. So when we put that down here, what are we really-- What are we really thinking about? So this is a thought process or a cognition. And what we've said before is when we think about cognitions, we're actually stereotyping. So if I think city dwellers are rude, then I may say that, "Hmm, you know what. I don't like them. "And you know what, if I don't like a group of people, "I'm probably not going to spend a lot of time with them. "I'm gonna probably avoid them." Well, let's have a look at these two other statements. "I don't like them." I'm attaching an affect, which is an emotion that can be positive or negative to the city dwellers. So now, there is an affective component to this. And when we have an affective component, we move from stereotyping to prejudice. And then moving from the affective component, we start to avoid them. What happens there? When we avoid them, we are actually demonstrating a behavioral component. And when we demonstrate a behavioral component, we're actually moving from prejudice to discrimination. So as we can see here, the difference between stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination is one of cognition, affect, and behavior. Well, let's go back to these city dwellers. If I avoid them, what do you think is gonna-- What do you think is gonna happen there? Well, you know what, let's take their viewpoint. If I avoid them, maybe they're going to start thinking that I am rude, So notice that may become their cognition now. And then if they think I am rude, they might not like me. And if they don't like me, they may try to avoid me. And if they avoid me, then I may start to think that they're rude. This actually feeds back here. This positively feeds back on itself. And suddenly we have this circle that can continuously feed back on itself. And notice that they have done, the same things that I did to them. A cognition, in that they think I am rude. An affective component, in that they may start to not like me. And a behavioral component, in which they start to avoid me. Well, what are we actually seeing here? Well, what we're seeing is a development of a self-fulfilling prophecy. And that's to say that our initial thought or cognition, that city dwellers are rude becomes more true and more affirmed over time, either directly or indirectly because of our own actions. To us, our initial stereotype that city dwellers are rude, becomes more true as we perceive them to be ruder and ruder over time in response to our own behavior. This is the positive feed back, that we see in a self-fulfilling prophecy.