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Discrimination individual vs institutional

Video transcript

discrimination is differential treatment and harmful actions against minorities the key word here being actions and discrimination can be based on a ton of different factors including race age religion and the list goes on and on and discrimination can occur at the individual level but it can also happen at an organization or institutional level so first let's take a look at an example of individual discrimination so for individual discrimination you can say that this is a science professor for example and he does not like women so he will not let them in his class no matter what and that is just how he that's that's how he is you know he says hey no women are allowed to learn physics in my class so because he is an individual person and he's acting against a certain type of people based on sex in this case but it could have been on age race religion whatever that is individual discrimination so he is taking action it's him one person on the other hand we have institutional discrimination so institutional discrimination is really just an organization discriminating it's not an individual anymore so this can include governments banks schools any sort of organizations so the example we'll look at is Brown versus Board of Education and this was a landmark court case in 1954 and in this court case it overturned the fact that there used to be separate but equal schools so african-americans and whites had to go to different schools well this in fact wasn't the case and that's what Brown was saying he was saying hey even though you're saying there are these separate but equal schools it actually is not true we're having much more inferior service to you and we also aren't receiving the same education and we're being mistreated so that is what institutional discrimination is and it can be done through a couple different ways and a couple types that we'll talk about are intentional and unintentional and this is a wall so this is intentional our example once we look at a couple examples of how institutional and organizational policies can actually discriminate unintentionally so first we'll look at something called side effect discrimination and side effect discrimination is an interesting thing because it talks about how one institution or organization or sort of sector can once another negatively so there's many institutions if we think about there's there's economics there's politics government law business medicine you know we have our all sorts and they all are interdependent and related in some way and that is what side effect discrimination is saying so if one area is sort of discriminating or doing something you can affect another so let's take a look at this example so let's say in a small town it seems that an african-american man has never gotten a non guilty verdict so many minorities plead guilty to a lesser charge even though they may have been innocent and they didn't think they could get off on a fair verdict in this city so they just took the lesser crime well let's fast forward they're trying to apply to a job now and while applying the job their criminal record comes up and the employer you know he has nothing he just uses the information about the applicants criminal record and they don't intend to discriminate by any means there's no ill will but they end up doing so whether or not the individual was guilty or not and this is side effect discrimination so it's unintentional so by the criminal justice system having reached an unjust verdict it wasn't fair at all the potential employer is swayed in an unfair way so that's side effect discrimination one institution affecting another so a second way unintentional discrimination can occur is through something called past and present discrimination and past and present discrimination talks about how things that were done in the past even though they may no longer be allowed they can have consequences for people in the present an example would be Brown versus Board of Education before this verdict african-americans and white people had to attend different schools so just have a decision let's say there's a girl and she wants to go to an integrated school now with white with white kids and black kids both in the same classroom but now she's clearly not she doesn't feel welcome she still feels mistreated and and it's still not going well for so that's past and present discrimination that's a negative attitude from the past coming forward to the present and it causes the minority to be discriminated against unfair