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Course: MCAT > Unit 1

Lesson 1: Critical analysis and reasoning skills (CARS) practice questions

Huns and eurasian history


The greatest territorial expansion and the greatest power of the Hun Empire in the West was when the centre of their activities reached Pannonia under the leadership of Attila. Greek and Latin sources indicate that Attila was of royal lineage, a line which for generations had ruled the Huns. Attila was a great statesman who did great deeds. He was a wise ruler, a skilled diplomat, and a fair judge. With good reason he should be considered a prominent figure in the first millennium AD. The Hun land under Attila’s control consisted of four areas; the northern border of the kingdom stretched from the Hun’s homeland to the west of Germany. In the south, both Roman Empires (the Eastern Roman and the Western Roman Empire) were paying tribute to Attila. In terms of its territory and influence, Attila’s empire covered geographically almost all the four corners of the known world, from east to west and from north to south. The Hun territory ran from east to west - from Altai, Central Asia and the Caucasus to the Danube and the Rhine. The Hun’s Union in Central Asia contributed to the later emergence of the Kazakh nation and other Turkic peoples. By accumulating and concentrating power, the Hun ruler organized an invasion of Western Europe, in order to expand the territory of his state. And so the Catalaunian Fields in Champagne (Gaul) became the place for the decisive (major) battle. Parisians were frightened of Attila’s cruelty and anger, so they decided to send women and children and some belongings to a safe place. There St. Genovea turned up and she resolved to persuade women not to leave the city, in which they had been born and grown up, in the hour of danger and, moreover, to prepare themselves and their men to the defense. St. Genovea told the women to ask God for help and salvation. They listened to Genovea and decided to stay in the city and rely on God’s mercy.
In the evaluation of the largest battle, a number of Western history scholars, both modern and contemporary, drew on information from the chroniclers of the early Middle Ages, and used them uncritically. The objective evaluation of historical reality is always difficult. A Belgian historian - Pirenn concluded that Attila, getting through the Rhine in the spring of 451 AD, devastated everything up to the Loire. Aetius stopped him with the help of the Germans near Troyes. The Franks, Burgundians and Visigoths and others were good allies. The military art of the Romans and German bravery decided everything here. Attila's death in 453 AD resulted in the collapse of Hun power, and thereby saved the West. In our opinion, the situation in Gaul can be explained by the over-large scale of Attila’s campaigns and the inability to restrain dozens of tribes and entities that were not related to the Huns socially and ethnically within the vast territory under the unified leadership. But let us return to the momentous meeting of 452 AD. In the spring of 453 AD, the ruler of the Hun Empire, Attila, died.
Which of the following statements BEST expresses the passage author’s main message?
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