- Motivations and attitudes questions
- Motivation article
- Physiological concept of positive and negative feedback
- Instincts, Arousal, Needs, Drives: Drive-Reduction and Cognitive Theories
- Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- Incentive theory
- Biological and Sociocultural Factors Food, Sex, and Drugs
- Components of attitudes
- Attitude influences behavior
- Behavior influences attitude
- Cognitive dissonance
- Situational approach
Created by Shreena Desai.
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- Can anyone give an example of where "Cognitive dissonance" led to new behavior for them? Thanks, T.S.(8 votes)
- That's a very similar situation to mine. I had been eating meat for 21 years up till the point I saw a video that changed my perspective and I gave up on eating meat completely.(3 votes)
- So let's say that I want to become healthier but I'm also eating pizza. So...?
Modify: Well, I don't have to become healthier by rejecting all these delicious things, right?
Trivialize: Ehh, what's one slice gonna do?
Add: This pizza has pineapple on it! It's healthy!
Deny: There is no direct correlation between BMI and pizza!(22 votes)
- There is no contradiction or inconsistency between 'I smoke' and 'Smoking leads to cancer'. A contradiction occurs in a set of two or more premises that cannot be true at the same time. For example, 'I smoke' and 'I do not smoke' is a contradiction. Consider that one might plausibly hold, in addition to these two cognitions, 'I don't care if I get cancer'. So, you are assuming that all smokers care about avoiding cancer. A better example of cognitive dissonance would be 'I smoke' and 'I am healthy'.(6 votes)
- I think you're getting caught in semantics a little bit. Someone who believes smoking is bad for them but still smokes will experience cognitive dissonance. It doesn't have to be an inconsistency in two cognitions. it can be an inconsistency between a cognition and a behaviour, like in this case, where the individual thinks smoking is bad, but still does it. Hope this makes sense(6 votes)
- Is there a 5th one? Compartmentalisation? Where you simply don't address it at all and shut it out of your mind completely?(2 votes)
- (lol exactly what i do with my problems) Yes, that's correct. I wish they put that in the video, but I'm not complaining.(1 vote)
- Is having two contradictory beliefs a bit like hypocrisy (especially if the attitude is positive but the behaviour is negative)?(2 votes)
- "My grandmother smoked and she lived till she was 90." Which method is this?(2 votes)
- In this case, we could implicate the availability heuristic, as well. The judgement is being made based on a limited amount of available information, such as a single example, rather than on extensive statistical data. :)(1 vote)
- Isn't 2. Trivialize a type of 1. Modify?
Also "I don't smoke THAT much" and "cancer is only weakly related to smoking" both seem like trivializing.(2 votes)
- I think 1 and 2 are related in a sense, and this example in this video might not be so great, but the point is what is the true change. They can modify some facts and add alteration - more general (type 1). Or the alter it specifically to make it less trivial (type 2).
Vegetarian - eating meat is bad, i dont eat meat ----but had a few bites at BBQ
1- i only eat meat at special events - MODIFY
2- chicken is not really considered meat - TRIVIALIZE (sorry chickens for the bad example)
Both are alterations, but one is more general while the other is especially made to make a statement less important.(0 votes)
- If the person decides to stop smoking, is he/she solving the cognitive dissonance? If so, what method is the person using to deal with the cognitive dissonance?(1 vote)
- Yes, they are. There are basically two options to solving cognitive dissonance: changing your thoughts or changing the behavior. However, you are more likely to change your thoughts than changing your behavior. If you want more info here's a link: http://psychologyforgrowth.com/2011/04/11/cogntive-dissonance-why-wed-rather-change-our-thoughts-than-behaviours/(2 votes)
- There are no video on this section...only the sound. The video appears after around 2 minutes.(1 vote)
- After watching this, I didn't see rationalization as a contributing factor to cognitive dissonance. Would this fall under "additions of cognition" to say, "well, I smoke but it helps to calm me down"?(1 vote)
- All four of these are "rationalizations" (technically, modify, also includes modifying the behavior, as well, so that wouldn't be). The "but it's actually good for me in this other way," is more in the "trivialize" category because, ya know, smoking can't be that bad for my heart since it keeps my stress levels down.(1 vote)
Voiceover: So we talked about, in our previous video, about how attitudes generally shape our behaviors. People strive for consistency and harmony between their attitudes and behaviors. For example, you wouldn't hold the attitude that eating meat is immoral and then still go out to Burger King and have a positive attitude towards eating hamburgers. So, there's an inconsistency and as people we usually don't like that. We feel a sense of discomfort. Now, when we have these contradictions in our attitudes and behaviors, this can lead to something called cognitive dissonance. So, cognitive dissonance is the discomfort experienced when holding two or more conflicting cognitions, and these cognitions can be ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. And this feeling of discomfort can lead to alterations in one of our attitudes, and one of our beliefs and even our behaviors. And the reason we alter or change these cognitions is kind of like a protective mechanism or defense mechanism, to reduce the discomfort we feel between inconsistencies. So, let's take a look at cognitive dissonance in the eyes of a smoker. Now, pretending we're a smoker, we're going to say, I smoke. But at the same time, we also think and have this attitude that smoking leads to cancer. Now, our behavior is we smoke, but our attitude is that smoking leads to cancer. There is a contradiction there, do you see it? There is an inconsistency. So, this is what dissonance is, if they are, are contradictions. And we don't like contradictions. We like balance and harmony, all that good stuff. So, when we have these contradictions, we may do four different things to our cognitions to alter alter those attitudes in order to reduce that comfort. And the first of these is that we may try to modify one or two of our cognitions. So, in this example of the smoker, the smoker may say, I really don't smoke that much. So, he went or she went from saying, I smoke, to modifying that a little bit and saying, I really don't smoke that much. So, there's a little bit of an alteration there in order to reduce the discomfort that person has in their attitude and behavior. The second thing that they might try and do is trivialize. Trivialize. Which means, making less important. So they may change the importance of their cognition or trivialize it, by saying something like, the evidence is weak that smoking causes cancer. So, remember their original cognition was, smoking leads to cancer. Now they're saying, by trivializing, that the evidence is weak that smoking causes cancer. So, do you see how there's a little bit of an alteration there as well? Now, the third way that this contradiction can be modified or reduced is by adding more cognitions. So, another way we can make our cognitions less discomfortable or the contradictions less uncomfortable, is by adding more cognitions. So, someone may say, I exercise so much that it doesn't even matter that I smoke. Well, the first was, I smoke. The second was, smoking leads to cancer. And now we're slightly modifying both of those by adding another cognition saying, I exercise so much that it doesn't even matter that I smoke. So there's a third way that we deal with cognitive dissonance. And the last way is by denying these cognitions altogether. So, we're denying that they're even related. Denying that smoking and cancer are even related. So the smoker, in this case, may say that there's no evidence that smoking and cancer are linked. So, this is cognitive dissonance in a nutshell in the eyes of a smoker. And the big take home message here is that people strive for harmony. We strive for harmony in our thoughts, in our words, in our actions, and as soon as our contradict, as soon as our cognitions, our attitudes and behaviors don't align, that's when we have cognitive dissonance.