If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:6:18

Match principles | Video lesson

Video transcript

to identify the question let's look at what it asks each of the following illustrates the principle that the passage illustrates except this is a match the principles question the twist here is that it's also an accept question which means that the for wrong choices will will be situations that share principle with the passage and then the answer will be a situation that doesn't share principle with the passage a principle is a sort of general rule or generalization that governs a specific situation one example of a common everyday principle that you might be familiar with is absence makes the heart grow fonder so a situation that conforms to that principle might be something like Alexandra stayed angry at her friends until she moved away and then she could only remember the good things about their friendship and then a situation with a matching principle might be something like David never got along with his brother until they lived in separate houses and didn't see each other very much then they became very close see how we have two specific situations that contain the same principle that's what we're looking for when we match the principles so pause your video now if you want to try this question on your own otherwise we will move to the explanation alright let's read this passage together and we'll pay attention to what kind of principle might be at play the passage reads when drivers are deprived of sleep there are definite behavioral changes such as slower responses to stimuli and a reduced ability to concentrate but people's self-awareness of these changes is poor most drivers think they can tell when they are about to fall asleep but they cannot so here we have a situation there's no argument there's no strong opinion we just have some information about drivers it seems like a key point here is the discrepancy between what drivers think is happening and what's really happening in the specific instance of when drivers are deprived of sleep so drivers don't have enough sleep and then they experience behavioral changes but don't realize that they're experiencing those changes so they believe they'll be able to tell when they're about to fall asleep but they actually can't and then the reason they can't is because they're sleep-deprived you see the issue here they're so sleep-deprived that they aren't equipped to tell if they're going to fall asleep so if we were to phrase a general statement that illustrates what's being described here it might be something like sometimes people's physical conditions cause them to not be able to make good decisions it doesn't have to be precise and in fact principles are usually very general now remember that we're working with an accept question that means that four of the choices will have the same principle and one won't so let's evaluate each choice to see which one gives us a situation that doesn't illustrate the principle we just saw a people who have been drinking alcohol are not good judges of whether they are too drunk to drive this illustrates the same principle we just saw in the passage people have been drinking alcohol and that alcohol is actually the precise reason they can't tell if they're too drunk to drive that's a match so we can eliminate this choice be elementary school students who dislike arithmetic are not good judges of whether multiplication tables should be included in the school's curriculum so this doesn't match the principle that we saw in the passage there's no physical condition that's preventing the students from being able to do something it's just that these students are biased by their dislike of something so they're too biased to be considered good reasonable judges of what should be in the school's curriculum since this situations principal doesn't match the passages principal and we're working with an accept question that means that this is our answer we could select it and move on on test day if we feel confident and we would save ourselves a lot of trouble in time let's look at the remaining choices though in case you have questions on them see Industrial Workers who have just been exposed to noxious fumes are not good judges of whether they should keep working this is a beautiful match for the passages situation we have a physical condition and that's being exposed to noxious fumes and then that physical condition is exactly what's causing the workers to not be good judges of whether they should keep working the fumes are impairing the workers decision-making abilities d people who have just donated blood and have become faint are not good judges of whether they are ready to walk out of the facility this twist also has a matching principle the physical condition is of being faint from donating blood and their good decision is about whether they are ready to walk out of the facility and the physical condition is stopping them from being able to make a good decision II people who are being treated for schizophrenia are not good judges of whether they should continue their medical treatments and this is our final matching principle the physical condition is schizophrenia and it's physically preventing people from being able to make a good decision about whether they should continue their medical treatments so to recap for match the principle questions it's a good idea to determine what principle governs the passage and then you should be able to identify the choice that illustrates that same principle or in this case since we had an accept question eliminate the choices that illustrate that same principle the stronger your notion of the principle is the easier it usually is to find the situation that has that same principle