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Enlightenment and Revolution (4-1)
The Enlightenment set the stage for this era. Scientific inquiry and empirical evidence were promoted in order to reveal and understand the physical world. Belief in knowledge and progress led to revolutions and a new emphasis on human rights. Subsequently, Romanticism offered a critique of Enlightenment principles and industrialization. Philosophies of Marx and Darwin impacted worldviews, followed by the work of Freud and Einstein. Later, postmodern theory influenced art making and the study of art. In addition, artists were affected by exposure to diverse cultures, largely as a result of colonialism. The advent of mass production supplied artists with ready images, which they were quick to appropriate.
By permission, © 2013 The College Board
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, oil on canvas, 1767 (Wallace Collection, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, oil on canvas, 1784 (Musée du Louvre)
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Grande Odalisque, 1814, Oil on canvas, 36" x 63" (91 x 162 cm), (Musée du Louvre, Paris)
Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, oil on canvas, 2.6 x 3.25m, 1830 (Musée du Louvre, Paris) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Thomas Cole, View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm—The Oxbow, 1836, oil on canvas, 51 1/2 x 76 inches / 130.8 x 193 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris
Joseph Mallord William Turner, Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On), 1840 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Speakers: Lori Landay & Beth Harris
Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), 1840-70, London Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker