Later Europe and Americas: 1750-1980 C.E.

From the mid-1700s to 1980 C.E., Europe and the Americas experienced rapid change and innovation. Art existed in the context of dramatic events such as industrialization, urbanization, economic upheaval, migrations, and wars. Countries and governments were re-formed; women’s and civil rights’ movements catalyzed social change. Artists assumed new roles in society. Styles of art proliferated and often gave rise to artistic movements. Art and architecture exhibited a diversity of styles, forming an array of “isms.” Works of art took on new roles and functions in society and were experienced by audiences in new ways. Art of this era often proved challenging for audiences and patrons to immediately understand.

Enlightenment and revolution

The Enlightenment set the stage for this era. Scientific inquiry and empirical evidence were promoted in order to reveal and understand the physical world. Belief in knowledge and progress led to revolutions and a new emphasis on human rights. Subsequently, Romanticism offered a critique of Enlightenment principles and industrialization. Philosophies of Marx and Darwin impacted worldviews, followed by the work of Freud and Einstein. Later, postmodern theory influenced art making and the study of art. In addition, artists were affected by exposure to diverse cultures, largely as a result of colonialism. The advent of mass production supplied artists with ready images, which they were quick to appropriate. By permission, © 2013 The College Board
Cabrera, Portrait of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Wright of Derby, A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery
Fragonard, The Swing
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, oil on canvas, 1767 (Wallace Collection, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Jefferson, Monticello
David, Oath of the Horatii
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, oil on canvas, 1784 (Musée du Louvre)
David, Oath of the Horatii
Houdon, George Washington
Vigée-Le Brun, Self-Portrait
Goya, And there's nothing to be done (from the Disasters of War)
Essay by Christine Zappella
Painting colonial culture: Ingres's La Grand Odalisque
By Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris 
Ingres, La Grande Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Grande Odalisque, 1814, Oil on canvas, 36" x 63" (91 x 162 cm), (Musée du Louvre, Paris)
Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, oil on canvas, 2.6 x 3.25m, 1830 (Musée du Louvre, Paris) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
Essay by Dr. Bryan Zygmont
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow
Thomas Cole, View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm—The Oxbow, 1836, oil on canvas, 51 1/2 x 76 inches / 130.8 x 193 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris
Cole, The Oxbow
Early photography: Niépce, Talbot, and Muybridge
Turner, Slave Ship
Joseph Mallord William Turner, Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On), 1840 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Speakers: Lori Landay & Beth Harris
Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament)
Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), 1840-70, London Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker 

Modern and contemporary art

Diverse artists with a common dedication to innovation came to be discussed as the avant-garde. Subdivisions include Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism, Expressionism, Cubism, Constructivism, Abstraction, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, performance art, and earth and environmental art. Many of these categories fall under the general heading of modernism. © 2013 The College Board
Courbet, The Stonebreakers
Early photography: Niépce, Talbot, and Muybridge
Manet, Olympia
Édouard Manet, Olympia, oil on canvas, 1863 (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker   Édouard Manet brought to Realism his curiosity about social mores. However, he was not interested in mirroring polite parlor conversations and middle class promenades in the Bois de  Boulogne (Paris’ Central Park). Rather, Manet invented subjects that set the Parisians’ teeth on edge.  In 1865, Manet submitted his risqué painting of a courtesan greeting her client (in this case, you), Olympia, of 1863, to the French Salon. The jury for the 1865 Salon accepted this painting despite their disapproval of the subject matter, because two years earlier, Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass created such a stir when it was rejected from the Salon. (It was instead exhibited in Emperor Napoleon III’s conciliatory exhibition—the Salon des Réfusés, or the Exhibition of the Refused. Crowds came to the Salon des Réfusés specifically to laugh and jeer at what they considered Manet’s folly.) Somehow they were afraid another rejection would seem like a personal attack on Manet himself. The reasoning was odd, but the result was the same—Olympia became infamous and the painting had to be hung very high to protect it from physical attacks.  Manet was a Realist, but sometimes his “real” situations shocked and rocked the Parisian art world to its foundations. His later work was much tamer. (Text by Dr. Beth Gersh-Nesic)
Monet, Gare St. Lazare
Claude Monet, Gare St. Lazare, 1877 (Musee d'Orsay)
Velasco, The Valley of Mexico
José María Velasco, The Valley of Mexico from the Santa Isabel Mountain Range (Valle de México desde el cerro de Santa Isabel),1875, oil on canvas, 137.5 x 226 cm (Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA, Mexico City) Speakers: Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Ewbank and Dr. Steven Zucker
Rodin, The Burghers of Calais
Velasco, The Valley of Mexico
Van Gogh: The Starry Night
Cassatt, The Coiffure
Munch, The Scream
Gauguin, Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?
Sullivan, Carson, Pirie, Scott Building
Essay by Dr. Margaret Herman
Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire
Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907 (Museum of Modern Art)
Stieglitz, The Steerage
Gustav Klimt, The Kiss
Gustav Klimt, The Kiss, 1907-8, oil and gold leaf on canvas, 180 x 180 cm (Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna)
Constantin Brancusi, The Kiss
Constantin Brancusi, The Kiss, 1916, limestone, 58.4 x 33.7 x 25.4 cm (Philadelphia Museum of Art) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Analytic Cubism
Matisse, Goldfish
Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912
Vasily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912, oil on canvas, 111.4 x 162.1 cm (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Kirchner, Self-Portrait As a Soldier
Käthe Kollwitz, In Memoriam Karl Liebknecht
Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye
Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, 1929
Stepanova, The Results of the First Five-Year Plan
Meret Oppenheim, Object (Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon)
Kahlo, The Two Fridas (Las dos Fridas)
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series (*short version*)
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series, 1940-41, 60 panels, tempera on hardboard (even numbers at The Museum of Modern Art, odd numbers at the Phillips Collection) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series (*long version*)
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series, 1940-41, 60 panels, tempera on hardboard (even numbers at The Museum of Modern Art, odd numbers at the Phillips Collection) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris
Duchamp, Fountain
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917/1964, porcelain urinal, paint, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Speakers:  Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
Lam, The Jungle
Mexican Muralism: Los Tres Grandes David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, and José Clemente Orozco
Rivera, Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in Alameda Central Park
de Kooning's Woman I
Willem de Kooning, Woman I, oil on canvas, 1950-52 (MoMA) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker
Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, 375 Park Avenue, New York City (1958) Speakers: Dr. Matthew Postal, Dr. Steven Zucker. Note: In the video we call Le Corbusier a French architect, but he was born in Swizerland and became a French citizen in 1930. 
Warhol, Marilyn Diptych
Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden
Essay by Danielle Shang
Frankenthaler, The Bay
Oldenburg, Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks
Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater
Smithson, Spiral Jetty
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970 (Great Salt Lake, Utah) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Shana Gallagher-Lindsay http://www.smarthistory.org/earth-artsmithsons-spiral-jetty.html
Venturi, House in New Castle County, Delaware
Essay by Dr. Matthew A. Postal
Basquiat, Horn Players
Essay by Dr. Jordana Moore Saggese