In this tutorial, Jay shows you how to predict the products of the reactions of aldehydes and ketones.
Formation of hydrates
How ketones and aldehydes react with water to form hydrates.
Formation of hemiacetals
How aldehydes react with alcohols to form hemiacetals.
Acid and base catalyzed formation of hydrates and hemiacetals
How addition of acid or base can catalyze the formation of hydrates and hemiacetals.
Formation of acetals
How aldehydes react with alcohols via an acid-catalyzed mechanism to form acetals.
Acetals as protecting groups and thioacetals
How acetals are used as protecting groups. Thioacetals are similar to acetals, but form from reaction of an aldehyde with a thiol (not an alcohol).
Formation of imines and enamines
How aldehydes and ketones react with primary and secondary amines to for imines and enamines.
Formation of oximes and hydrazones
How aldehydes and ketones can react with hydroxylamine to form oximes or hydrazine to form hydrazones.
Addition of carbon nucleophiles to aldehydes and ketones
How carbon-containing nucleophiles attack aldehydes and ketones to form alcohols.
Formation of alcohols using hydride reducing agents
Reduction of aldehydes, ketones, and esters using sodium borohydride and lithium aluminum hydride.
Oxidation of aldehydes using Tollens' reagent
Oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using Tollens' reagent.