Class 12 Biology (India)
Commonly abused drugs review
Heroin, cocaine, morphine, barbiturates, nicotine, tobacco
This articles offers an overview of :
- different categories of drugs,
- some commonly abused drugs, and
- the sources and effects of these drugs.
|Drug||Chemical substance that causes a change in the body when consumed|
|Addiction||Condition or disorder which drives compulsive, repetitive actions despite negative consequences|
|Substance abuse||Harmful and extensive misuse of mood-altering chemicals like drugs or alcohol|
|Stimulant||Substances that increase energy and performance|
|Depressant||Substances that relax or slow down bodily functions|
Types of drugs
One way to classify drugs is based on their makeup; chemically similar substances are either synthetically manufactured, or derived from the same natural source. On the other hand, some drugs can have different structures, but similar effects on the human body.
Let's take a look at some common categories of drugs.
|Opioid||morphine, heroin||latex of poppy plant (Papaver somniferum)|
|Cannabinoid||cannabis||flower tops, leaves, resin of cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa)|
|Stimulant||cocaine||leaves of coca plant (Erythroxylum coca)|
|Stimulant||nicotine||tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum)|
Commonly abused drugs
|Drug name||Taken via||Effect|
|Heroin, smack, diacteylmorphine||Snorting/injection||Binds opioid receptors in CNS and GIT; depressant (slows down body functions)|
|Cannabis, marijuana, hashish, charas, ganja||Inhalation/oral ingestion||Binds receptors in brain and affects cardiovascular system|
|Cocaine, coke, crack||Snorting||Stimulates CNS, interferes with dopamine transport; causes euphoria, increased energy, and hallucinations.|
|Nicotine||Inhalation/oral ingestion||Stimulates adrenal gland to release adrenaline and noradrenaline; raises blood pressure and heart rate.|
Derivatives of Atropa belladona and Datura plants are also known to cause hallucinations.
Let's play detective.
The drug-control burueau raids a warehouse to investigate a tip about illegal drug manufacturing on the premises. They find large quantities of plant pods containing a milky latex (see image below).
Further, they find bags of a white, crystalline substance that lab tests later confirm to be diacetylmorphine.
What drug is being manufactured in this warehouse?
A sportsperson is investigated after failing a drug test. When questioned, she admits to occasionally using cannabinoids to relax before big tournament.
Which of the following substances would she have tested positive for?
Authorities break up a party after receiving complaints of excessive noise. They discover a room in which some people are snorting a white powder, and note that several attendees seem abnormally energetic. A few people seemed to be hallucinating - talking to themselves or to the air.
What drug did the party goers consume?
Want to join the conversation?
- How many kinds of drugs are there guys?(1 vote)
- There are plenty of types of drugs. Good and bad.(0 votes)