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Brain: Parts & functions (Fore, mid & hind)

Let's learn the functions & parts of fore, mid & hindbrain. Created by Mahesh Shenoy.

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  • piceratops ultimate style avatar for user |[-f(x)]|= f(x)
    My brain is learning about itself in this video, right?
    (11 votes)
    Default Khan Academy avatar avatar for user
    • aqualine ultimate style avatar for user Rithya~~~
      Your brain has just 'understood' itself, even if you have no idea how 'tired' works. ...
      A brain can understand a brain, but only to a degree. Collectively, our brains can understand a brain, however, and could build devices that do completely simulate a brain.
      In short "Yes": )
      (4 votes)
  • blobby purple style avatar for user Aditi
    What are the separate functions of the cerebrum, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary gland?
    (0 votes)
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    • blobby blue style avatar for user Isabella Mathews
      Cerebrum is the main part of the brain, which helps in thinking, and processing information, and memory, and what-not. It's the center of human intelligence.

      Hypothalamus has many vital, like so-important-you-can't-live-without-it functions like:
      releasing hormones for the pituitary gland to produce growth hormones,
      • regulating body temperature,
      controlling emotions like hunger, thirst, lust etc.

      Pituitary gland is the master gland of our body. And as the name suggests, it:
      • regulates the work of all other endocrine glands, and
      releases the Growth-Stimulating Hormone (GSH), which results in the height and basically, the overall growth of the body.

      Hope this helps and if I'm mistaken, I apologize and please let me know. :)
      (13 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user bhuvanshankarchoppa
    sir, what about diencephelon please could you explain
    (3 votes)
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    • starky sapling style avatar for user anugraha
      Diencephalon consists of pineal gland, thalamus and hypothalamus.

      Pineal gland is located near the centre of the brain. It releases melatonin which affects the wake and sleep patterns. It also affects reproduction development.

      Thalamus gland is located above the brain stem which relays sensory and motor signals to the brain (specifically, the cerebral cortex).

      Hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. It plays an important role in the release of many hormones.For example, when the level of growth hormone is low, the hypothalamus releases growth-hormone-releasing-factor which stimulates the pituitary gland to release the growth hormone.
      It also regulates body temperature.

      hope this explanation helped you and if there's anything incorrect, please let me know.
      (4 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user stranger
    What about the Olfactory Lobes of the Forebrain? Could you explain that, please? Also if I am right, the forebrain consists of the Olfactory Lobes, the Cerebrum and the Diencephalon.
    (3 votes)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user P.S Abdul Razack
    Is cerebral cortex in the cerebrum and what are the lobes in the brain.
    (2 votes)
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  • eggleston blue style avatar for user Sarthak Sidhant
    "I love you with all my forebrain"
    - Mahesh to his wife

    yeah she hasnt spoken to me with ever since
    (2 votes)
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  • cacteye green style avatar for user AbhinavJPai
    I guess the stimuli picked up by the cranial nerves go up to medulla oblongata for reflex?
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user yashpuranik27
    Which involuntary actions does the Mid-brain controls and which involunary actions does the Hind-brain controls?
    (1 vote)
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  • sneak peak blue style avatar for user Vedant_Rane
    At Mahesh said that forebrain takes care of the voluntary activities by sensing anything is not a voluntary activity, we can't touch a book with our right hand and feel it on the left hand or see a book and see it as a pen.Fealing is an involuntary *activity.*
    (1 vote)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user DavE
    guy i dey learn for here o. great video abeg
    (1 vote)
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Video transcript

has your brain ever wondered what the parts of the brain are and what are their functions well that's basically what we're gonna talk about in this video so what are you looking at is a section of your brain and to make sense of this let's say you could see someone's brain from the top then you would be able to see the two hemispheres like this don't worry this is not a brain this is just a walnut it looks very similar to the brain but let's say desert two hemispheres now imagine you cut this walnut and then you look at the inside side of this one and you will see something like this right the inner side of one of the halves well that's basically what we're looking at it's the inner side of one of the hemispheres okay so let's get rid of that and look at the different parts we can broadly divide our brain into three parts the forebrain which is this big yellow section the midbrain which is this tiny pink section and the hind brain or the lower brain which is this blue section usually when we say humans have big brain you're basically talking about this forebrain section okay and then the midbrain is actually the beginning part of the brainstem brain stem is a brain stem is on top of which the forebrain sets the brain stem connects the forebrain to the spinal cord this continues as the spinal cord so the beginning section of that brainstem is what we call as the midbrain and then the later section of the brainstem is a part of the hind brain right this is the hind brain and the hind brain also consists of this section you know this itself looks like a mini brain all by itself but that and the remaining portion of that brainstem is basically what we call the hind brain okay so what are the functions of them before we get into the details to get a broad sense of what these parts do we can think that the forebrain is responsible for all the voluntary functions and the midbrain and hindbrain together are responsible for all the involuntary functions so when I say voluntary think about all the actions that you carry out consciously by thinking about them like to take a walk or maybe to talk to someone or decide to watch this video about brains so all of that is from your forebrain and of course we'll talk more details about that in a second and when I say involuntary functions there are some functions that are happening in your body which are not in control but which you are not in control of for example your heart beating or maybe your digestion you're not in control of those right so those are mostly taken care by your midbrain and a hindbrain so how do we remember which part does which well the way I like to think about it is I remember that you know what makes humans special is their big brain big forebrain and I remember that we have this amazing intellectual ability right our intelligence so forebrain gives us our intelligence so it's because of that I can do all my thinking in all my decisions and also I can walk and talk because of this so that's how I basically remember forebrain controls voluntary actions with this in mind let's look at the functions and the parts in a little bit more detail so let's zoom out a little bit and I've made some space so that we can write more parts so let's start with the forebrain if you look at the forebrain you can again kind of see two sections of it the outer section which contains a lot of folds and the inner section let me shade that inner section a little bit darker so we can identify that so the outer section right this big giant outer section it's called it's called let me call that it's called this cerebrum cerebellum sorry the cerebrum this whole outer section which I have colored with light yellow is the cerebrum and we're not going to look at further parts of that okay so that's the outer section for us if you look at the inner section we're going to look at three parts of the inner section okay one part which is over here so let me put an arrow mark like this then one part which is a little below that I'm gonna write over here somewhere okay wait a second yeah let me write that over here and this small thing that you can see that one these are the three parts that we need to remember at least for our syllabus okay so this one you know what we call that that is called the thalamus let me use this color okay it's called the thalamus and these are all Greek names okay so it will not make sense to us but I looked up telomers kind of means an inner portion or inner region and it's basically what this is right it's an inner region of our forebrain so the comment that the the part that comes below that is called hypothalamus so the next part is hypothalamus and hypo kind of means lower so it's the lower part of the thalamus hypothalamus and this last part which will be interested in this one the small thing that you can see over here that is called the pituitary gland pituitary gland right this part over here okay so these are the four parts of our forebrain so these are the only parts that we'll concentrate on so let me just put them together so this is your four brain parts all right so what do they do what are their functions with we don't have to look at the individual functions we don't have to do that but the forebrain as a whole what does it do well one of the things like we already said voluntary functions but again let's dig ability but what does it do one of the things that you can think of is sinking right and when I say thinking I'm including a lot of things over here because there's not much space sinking you're learning ability your speech language all of that all of that comes from your forebrain but what else to think about what else your forebrain can do take a look at this picture the reason you are able to see this is because of your forebrain you may be wondering wait it's my eyes right its eyes but the eyes send a signal to the brain and it's your fore brain that does the processing and that's why you can see it similarly you can hear me right now because of your forebrain all the five senses you can sense them because of your forebrain and so one important function of your forebrain is sensing let me just write that as sensing okay what else well you identified this picture right it's a puppy did you confuse it with something like maybe a donkey or tiger No the reason you can even remember it's a puppy it's because of your memory because you know what puppies look like and you can associate with it so that also comes from your forebrain memory learning all of that comes from your forebrain now when you look at this puppy some kind of emotion Cameron right like you may have felt oh what a cute puppy you may have felt happy looking at it maybe if I showed you some different picture maybe if I show you some scary picture you you'll experience fear right so all the emotions they to come from your forebrain all your emotions including love that's all right love does not come from the heart it comes from your forebrain in fact fun story the other day my wife asked me hey how much do you love me I said I love you with all my forebrain yeah she hasn't spoken to me since but it was worth it all right now besides these there are also other things that the for Brenda's some of the feelings that you get like for example the feeling of hunger a feeling of being sleepy thirst or maybe you know after you have finished a meal the feeling of fullness all of that also comes from your forebrain actually that comes from this part of the forebrain but we don't have to remember all those things so these are some of the functions of your forebrain so what's next we're not going to look at the parts of the midbrain it's a tiny section will not look at its parts so let's jump directly to the hindbrain if you look at this brainstem over here the bluer section you can actually see two distinct regions over there so one region one lump over here and one more here right so this one this one let me use a different color alright so this one we're here it's called pons that's the name given to it pons again I know little weird name it's Latin again it means bridge it's kind of like bridging between the middle brain and this bottom part that brings us to this bottom part which is pretty important for us the bottom one is called you rather don't hear it's called medulla medulla oblongata okay we're gonna look at its functions separately and then you can look at this big region let's make it dark so we can see that so this region which kind of looks like a brain on its own is called Sur a pelham do not confuse that with Sarah Brom cerebrum is the biggest part of our brain cerebellum that's name given to this so these three regions these three regions are going to be the part of our hind brain these are hind brain and since you're not gonna look at the parts of the midbrain this is it this is all the parts that we need to remember so again what are the functions of the hind brain your Rizzo it's involuntary but let's look at the individual let's look at medulla oblongata and the cerebellum these two are important for us so what is the medulla oblongata do well again it controls most of the life-giving involuntary processes okay so we'll say life-giving involuntary processes in I'll just write involve okay involuntary processes that means these are the most essential for life like your heart beating your breathing digestion all of those essential things are taken care by your medulla oblongata along with that it also controls some of your reflexes now if you've started about reflexes before you may be wondering hey isn't that controlled by your by your spinal cord yes some of them are controlled by the spinal cord but some of the reflexes like you are sneezing coughing those are controlled by your medulla oblongata all right the idea is the reflexes are not controlled by your thinking part of the brain none of the reflexes are controlled by the forebrain that's why they're even called reflexes but the medulla does control some of your reflexes as well so these are two major functions of the medulla okay what about the cerebellum it's getting a little crowded I hope you can see them apart so again I'm going to put some division over here yes so what is cerebellum do well cerebellum also has some involuntary function was a little different one of its function is to maintain balance balance now what I mean by this is if you want to even the simplest of the simplest tasks like walking or maybe holding a cup these things requires careful calculation coordination you don't think about where the gravity is and all of those stuff right if you try to build a robot it's then you actually see how complicated those things are but we do it with ease that's because of our cerebellum because it is the one that maintains balance and along with that another major function is a motor memory motor memory what's that well think of riding a bicycle with the first time when you are trying to learn the bicycle you are using a lot of your forebrain you were learning you're learning to get talents you were learning how the pedal works you're learning maybe how to do the Tring Tring and everything you all those things you're learning but once you learn that once you've done enough practice now when you want to ride your bicycle you don't even think about it we say it it has become more second nature right all the things happen automatically how it's the cerebellum it's this that's what we call as motor memory another example could be let's say when you're typing on a keyboard if you have enough enough practice you don't have to look down anymore you don't have to worry about which keys are where it just automatically happens motor memory so all those things are controlled by the cerebellum and you know how I can remember this I remember this by remembering that you know when people drink alcohol it's their cerebellum that gets affected think about it if your cerebellum gets affected your balance gets affected and that's why people who are intoxicated they can't balance themselves they will be walking funny and everything they may no longer be in a position to ride a bicycle this is actually one of the reasons why we say don't drink and drive because your motor memory gets affected so even the most basic things that initially usually we think it's easy for us to do like while driving that gets affected all right so that's how I remember the functions of the cerebellum all right so finally maybe we weren't wondering what about the midbrain so these are midbrain right we never look at the parts of the midbrain midbrain also controls some of the involuntary functions for example when you shine light in your eyes your pupils become smaller that is controlled by your midbrain so the midbrain also controls some of your involuntary functions but we're not gonna look at that and this is pretty much it for us now since this screen itself contains the entire summary why don't you try pausing the video and then revise and then see if you can recall all the parts and the functions without looking