|Gamete||A sex cell (in humans: sperm for males, and eggs for females)|
|Meiosis||A two-step process of cell division that is used to make gametes (sex cells)|
|Crossing over||Process in which homologous chromosomes trade parts|
|Interphase||Phase of the cell cycle where the cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA|
|Homologous chromosomes||Set of chromosomes (one from each parent), that are very similar to one another and have the same size/shape|
|Sister chromatids||Two halves of a duplicated chromosome|
|Diploid (2n)||Cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes|
|Haploid (n)||Cell that contains only a single set of genes|
Stages of meiosis
Common mistakes and misconceptions
- Interphase is not part of meiosis. Although a cell needs to undergo interphase before entering meiosis, interphase is technically not part of meiosis.
- Crossing over occurs only during prophase I. The complex that temporarily forms between homologous chromosomes is only present in prophase I, making this the only opportunity the cell has to move DNA segments between the homologous pair.
- Meiosis does not occur in all cells. Meiosis only occurs in reproductive cells, as the goal is to create haploid gametes that will be used in fertilization.
- Meiosis is important to, but not the same as, sexual reproduction. Meiosis is necessary for sexual reproduction to occur, as it results in the formation of gametes (sperm and eggs). However, sexual reproduction includes fertilization (the fusion between gametes), which is not part of the meiotic process.