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# Data to justify experimental claimsÂ examples

## Video transcript

- [Instructor] What we have
here are a few data analysis questions in a biology context from the New York Regents Exam, but these are useful example problems if you're studying high
school biology in general because they might show up in some type of an exam that your teacher gives you or you might see on a standardized test. A student proposes that,
if volunteers warm up before squeezing a
clothespin for one minute, they will increase the number of times that they can squeeze it within tiring. He states that this is
because their muscles will be better prepared for the exercise. The data from an experiment are shown in the data table below. Which trial from the chart
above provides the best data to support his claim? Support your answer. So, pause this video and
see if you could answer it. So, let's just make sure we
understand what's going on here. So, there's two trials. This is the first trial,
trial one, right over here, and in trial one, you had
two groups of 10 students. One of them did warm up and
the other 10 did not warm up, and then in trial two,
you had two more groups and this time, they were groups of 25. Once again, 25 who did warm
up and 25 who didn't warm up. Now, in trial one, the
group that warmed up actually had a lower
number of average squeezes, so this goes against the
hypothesis that the student had. The hypothesis the student has
is if they warm up beforehand that you would actually be
able to do more squeezes, so trial one actually goes
against the student's claim. Trial two seems to slightly go in favor of the student's claim. The group that warmed up was
able to eke out a few more. Now, we haven't done
the statistical analysis to know how probable this is, if it was due purely to random chance, but just to answer that question, one, the data goes, trial
one goes a little bit against the student's claim. Trial two best supports this claim, although it doesn't do it so strongly. So, I would say trial two and that is because the 25 that warmed, warmed up, that is group three, group three, were able, on average, on average, to squeeze more in a minute, to squeeze more in the minute than group four that didn't warm up. Alright, let's do another question here. So, here we're told, students
were asked to design a lab that investigated the
relationship between exercise and heart rate. Heart rate was determined by recording the pulse rate in beats per minute. The students hypothesized
that increased exercise results in an increased heart rate. The class results for
the experiment are shown in the graph below. And then they say, which
statement is best supported by this graph? And we're given four choices. So, pause this video and see if you could answer this on your own. Alright, now let's go through
statement by statement. Statement one, before exercising, the average pulse rate was 65. Four minutes after exercising, the average pulse rate was 65. So, let's see. Before exercising, the
average pulse rate was 65. So, before exercising, this
is time period right over here and it does look like over most of that time period,
let me do this in red, it does look like that is reasonably, that is roughly true. It looks like the average
pulse rate was 65, but now let's read the
second part of the statement. Four minutes after exercising, the average pulse rate was 65 as well. Four minutes after exercising, what's the average pulse rate? Well, it sure isn't 65, it looks closer to being, maybe, 135, not 65,
so we could rule this one out. After four minutes of exercising, the average pulse rate was 120. Let's see. So, this is when the exercise starts. After four minutes, the
average pulse rate was 120. No, it looks like it was like
135 or something like this, so this is already looking fishy. Two minutes after exercising, the average pulse rate was 120. So, two minutes after exercising, the average pulse rate actually
seems closer to about 90, so both of those look fishy,
I'll rule that one out. While exercising, the average, the highest average pulse rate was 150. Before exercising, the
average pulse rate was 65. So, let's see, while exercising, the highest average pulse
rate happens right over there and that does indeed
look pretty close to 150, so this part's looking good. Before exercising, the
average pulse rate was 65. Yeah, we already talked about
this period right over here. So, this is looking good,
I'm liking this choice, but let's see choice four. Two minutes before exercising, the average pulse rate was 80. So, two minutes before exercising, this is when we start exercising and each of these hash marks is a minute, so two minutes before, the
average pulse rate was not 80, so that's false. After two minutes of exercise, the average pulse rate was 140. After two minutes, the average
pulse rate was also not 140, so both of those
statements are not correct. So, I like statement three,
that's the one that seems to be backed up by the data here.