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Current time:0:00Total duration:5:11

Video transcript

so here's a side view of the human head the throat and the esophagus and in the throw you can see we have the trachea right here and we have the larynx also known as the voice box and above it we have the epiglottis and the re epiglottis folds so primarily I want to talk about the different causes of hoarseness that can be caused by growths on the vocal cords and so over here we have a top view of the larynx so if you were looking directly down at the vocal cords in the larynx this is the view that you would see so this would be the front where the epiglottis is right the little flap of tissue that protects the airway when swallowing and this is the back view and this is the view that's typically seen by practitioners when a patient undergoes laryngoscopy laryngoscopy is the use of a camera to visualize the larynx the camera is on a very long tube I also it can be sometimes described as a telescope to really see what's going on here gives a visual of the larynx or in other words a visual of the voice box and the surrounding tissue now there are other ways to view the larynx but this is one of the more common ways using a fiber-optic scope to visualize everything and this usually goes through the nasal passage and down the back of the throat and sometimes it can be introduced through the mouth as well so with that let's go ahead and talk about the different growths that can be seen on the vocal cords now I have these white lines drawn here representing where the vocal cords are and here again we have the epiglottis up here and other surrounding tissue on the sides the first growth I want to mention is called a nodule now vocal cord nodules are generally bilateral they can be found on either side and they just appears a sort of round lump on the vocal cords now these nodules form through overuse of the vocal cords so if a patient is using their voice often either maybe they're a singer or they talk a lot kind of like me they can develop these vocal cord nodules and they're very irritating you know they cause raspy nests and hoarseness of the voice and just our overall nuisance but nodules are actually benign meaning they're not cancerous and they actually resolve on their own they'll go away with rest of the vocal cords and rest of the voice so they resolve on their own now another type of growth is known as a papilloma and if it's on the larynx it's called a laryngeal papilloma so now let me actually color code these so nodule I have in pink papilloma I'll do in this yellow color so papillomas kind of just can appear on the vocal cords as a lump also and they may actually have an irregular border to them so it may be bumpy whereas nodules are for the most part just a little node kind of like a sphere or a circle papillomas can grow along the vocal cord and as I said it's a benign growth meaning it doesn't cause cancer it's non cancerous however they can be very annoying because they do not resolve on their own in fact they'll continue to grow unless cut out or excised and papillomas are generally caused by a virus called HPV human papilloma virus human papilloma virus is caused by oral sex unprotected oral sex and these papillomas grow very quickly and they can be very irritating because even when removed they can grow back so the best way to get rid of papillomas is to never have them in the first place safe sex practices is the best way to avoid laryngeal papillomas and lastly I'll color in this little blue color is laryngeal carcinoma or laryngeal cancer carcinoma means cancer very similar to papillomas they can actually grow in a regular way on the vocal cords so they have very oddly shaped borders and because papillomas and carcinomas look very similar they need to be viewed under a microscope because these two types of growth look different under a microscope now most carcinoma of the larynx is called squamous cell carcinoma also known as SCC squamous cell carcinoma and it's known that both alcohol and smoking can cause squamous cell carcinoma and as I said to treat this this also needs to be excised however carcinoma of the larynx laryngeal carcinoma is very dangerous and can grow very rapidly some patients have to have their entire larynx removed which means they lose their ability to speak so when a patient has a growth other than a nodule on the vocal cords this should be taken very seriously however laryngeal carcinoma is very aggressive so even cutting it out may not be enough to cure a patient some patients have to undergo radiation or chemotherapy along with this