- Rapid breathing (tachypnea): More breaths (up to 40-50 breaths/minute) means more oxygen is brought into the body over a period of time.
- Deep breathing: Deep breaths allows each breath takes in more oxygen.
- Tripod position: A person will subconsciously place their hands on their knees and lean forward to use the "strap" muscles of the neck. This position provides a mechanical advantage, making it easier to sucking more air in!
- Subcostal retractions: Indrawing of the abdomen just below the rib cage (sometimes referred to as belly breathing).
- Substernal retractions: Indrawing of the abdomen just below the sternum (breastbone).
- Intercostal retractions: Indrawing of the skin in between each rib
- Suprasternal retractions (tracheal tug): Indrawing of the skin in the middle of the neck above the sternum (breastbone).