Advanced nervous system physiology

There are billions and billions of neurons in your brain (about 85 billion), and they’re all sending electrical signals throughout your body right now! They tell your eyes to move across this page, how to interpret the words that you read, how to maintain your posture, your heart rate, and your breathing...all of it in a fraction of a second. In this section, we’ll explore the nature of this vast, complex system, from the cellular level to how it operates at a sensory level. A common misconception is that we only have 5 senses (see, smell, taste, hear, and feel), but we have many more that are nuanced but equally important. Learn more about how our bodies are designed to interact with the world.
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All content in “Advanced nervous system physiology”

Neural cells and neurotransmitters

Get an overview of the structure and function of neurons, and learn about the many other important cells needed to help our nervous system function optimally! By Matt Jensen.

Sight (vision)

Photons are hitting your eye as you read this! Learn about our sense of sight, including the cells responsible for converting light into a neural impulse, the structure of the eye, and how we break down images to make sense of them.

Sound (Audition)

Learn about how we hear, including the structure of the outer, middle, and inner ear, as well as the basics of auditory processing & cochlear implants.


We perceive the environment through our bodily senses, including our sensation of pain, temperature, pressure, balance, and movement. Discover how our body gathers this information and processes it so that we can make sense of the world.

Taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction)

Learn about our senses of smell (olfaction) and taste (gustation), including the anatomy and underlying molecular basis behind these important senses.