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Video transcript

so schizoaffective disorder czar those where someone meets the criteria for both schizophrenia and a major mood disorder and both sets of symptoms are enough so that they cause some kind of distress or are interfering with normal daily life so what exactly is a major mood disorder though well it's a bit of a broad umbrella or category for illnesses that involve a serious change in mood and I don't just mean like feeling sad or irritable from time to time not just like having a bad day or something mood disorders affect your everyday emotional state and they're more intense and more difficult to manage compared to just a bad mood or just feelings of sadness this might be persistent sadness that doesn't go away and so there's sort of a spectrum of mood disorders where we put a normal mood right in the middle and then all the way over on this side there's this severe depression which seriously interferes with your ability to enjoy life and then there's varying degrees of depression in between and then all the way on the other side there's mania which is like this abnormally elevated mood so maybe things like feeling very irritable or having insomnia and having very fast and energetic speech or racing thoughts and just like major depression this would be enough such that it interferes with your daily life and then you've also got these varying degrees in between normal and mania so a major mood disorder might be out here at severe depression or out here at severe mania or you might have these like huge swings in mood between depression and mania which is sometimes called bipolar disorder okay so let's say you've got this circle for major mood disorders like depression mania or bipolar disorder and then this circle represents schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis like hallucinations and delusions if we combine these two sets this middle chunk is what we call schizoaffective disorder which as we can see has both a major mood disorder and also symptoms of schizophrenia now just like schizophrenia and mood disorders though there have yet to be any imaging or lab tests that we've developed to definitely tell us that hey this verse says schizophrenia or hey this person has severe depression or this person has both meaning that they would have schizoaffective disorder that being the case we have to look for symptoms of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder to come up with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or ders is a book called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders the fifth edition which is also frequently just called the dsm-5 now this guy helps psychiatrists look for certain specific criteria for patients to meet to be diagnosed with a particular disorder so if we page to the section on schizoaffective disorder we'll find several pieces of criteria to meet in order to be diagnosed first the patient has to have symptoms of psychosis so things like delusions and hallucinations without a major mood disorder for a period of two weeks in order to meet the criteria for the schizophrenic portion if this doesn't ever happen if we don't meet this criteria then the symptoms are probably more likely to be in line with the psychotic depression as opposed to schizoaffective disorder and secondly a major mood episode which is a mood disorder like depression mania or both that lasts greater than two weeks has to be present alongside schizophrenia for an uninterrupted period of time to be classified as schizoaffective disorder but doesn't schizophrenia sometimes include depressive symptoms what's the difference between schizophrenia and depressive symptoms and schizoaffective disorder well in order to be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder you have to meet the criteria for major mood disorders as well so if they were diagnosed with schizophrenia with depressive symptoms the depressive symptoms must not be meeting the criteria to constitute a major mood disorder additionally the patient has to be experiencing impairments in functioning due to both the schizophrenia and the major mood disorder all right so let's post a million-dollar question what causes schizoaffective disorder well by now you might be able to guess that we don't exactly know but it's thought to involve an imbalance in several neurotransmitters in your brain like dopamine norepinephrine although genetics likely plays a role there have yet to be any genes identified but with that said we know that having family members with schizophrenia bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder itself all increases your risk of developing schizophrenia schizoaffective disorder we're usually going to use medications we need to be careful because now there's both symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorders currently there's only one antipsychotic drug that's been approved by the FDA for treatment of schizoaffective disorder specifically and it's called pala perdón or in Vega but there are other antipsychotics that may be used as well to target symptoms of schizophrenia and help manage psychotic symptoms for the mood disorder symptoms it depends on the mood disorder present if they have depression then antidepressants will probably be prescribed if they have mania then it's likely they'll receive antipsychotics in mood stabilizers like lithium apart from drugs and medications though the patient may also undergo some sort of psychotherapy in the outlook or prognosis of someone diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder varies and it's thought to be somewhere between that of mood disorders in schizophrenia with that said there tends to be a better outlook than for those with schizophrenia alone and a worse outlook for those with mood disorders alone so the best prognosis would be over here with mood disorders and then the worst prognosis is over here with just schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is somewhere in between so things are risk factors that have been shown to be associated with a worse prognosis are things that relate to the psychosis side of it so being closer to schizophrenia other things are things like earlier onset and when there's no periods of remission or temporary recovery and finally like we mentioned before having a family member with schizophrenia