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Current time:0:00Total duration:4:29

Video transcript

so far in this tutorial we've talked about states of consciousness that occur naturally meaning you don't really have to try to be awake or to fall asleep but there are some states of consciousness that do require some effort so now I'm going to talk about a couple induced states of consciousness hypnosis and meditation when you think of hypnosis you might think of the typical Hollywood depiction of some creepy guy who swings a pocket watch in front of people's faces and then gets them to start clucking like a chicken or something else they would never do normally but don't worry no one can actually do that to you without your consent a hypnotist power is completely and how open you or the person being hypnotized are to suggestion and most people are open to some degree of suggestion at least for example it tries this with someone who hasn't seen this video get them to stand up and close their eyes and then tell them that they're swaying back and forth so don't tell them to sway back and forth just tell them that that's what they're doing and most people when they hear you tell them the thirst way will actually start swaying if they weren't before but if they know what's coming and don't want to be swayed haha then this won't work it's the same with hypnotism it usually involves getting people to relax and focus on a particular spot or internal function like breathing and people become more susceptible to suggestion in this state but only if they want to so as you enter into that state of hypnosis and the EEG would pick up more alpha waves in your brain indicating an awake but relaxed state and some people use hypnosis to try to retrieve memories which is kind of dangerous and not scientific because memory is very malleable and since we don't record events in our head like a video camera does sometimes people who supposedly retrieve memories during hypnosis can actually create false memories that incorporate hypnotized errs leading questions or expectations even if they don't intend to and some people also think that hypnosis helps them refocus their attention which is why it can be used to treat pain for example there's some evidence that people under hypnosis have reduced brain activity in areas that process sensory input even though the areas that receive the sensory input the sensory cortex are functioning normally so this could mean that although hypnosis doesn't completely block out sensor in put it might help inhibit our attention to that input which enables some people to deal with more painful stimuli than they normally would but again the bottom line is that if you think it will work it has a good chance of working but if you think it won't work then you're stuck with the more traditional pain-killing techniques and another induced state of consciousness is meditation there are a lot of definitions of meditation but we're going to focus on the type that involves training people to self-regulate their attention and awareness so meditation can be guided and focused on something in particular like breathing oftentimes are relaxing muscles or something like that but meditation can also be unfocused when you let the mind wander freely during light meditation people experience more alpha waves that during normal relaxation and then during deep meditation this is the type that usually only experts achieve like Tibetan monks but they have increased theta waves in the brain which also happened during some sleep stages but you're still awake there aren't very many scientific studies on long-term effects of meditation but some studies do indicate that in people who regularly get into deep meditation there's increased activity when they're not agitating increased activity in their prefrontal cortex right hippocampus and right anterior insula suggesting that those people have an increased ability to control their attention which is the goal of meditation so that's good this ability to control your attention could have important implications for people with attention related disorders such as ADHD or even people who want to avoid some of the attentional deficits associated with natural aging