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## Electrical engineering

### Course: Electrical engineering > Unit 4

Lesson 1: Diode# Diode

Introducing the diode as a circuit element. A diode conducts current in one direction but not the other. Created by Willy McAllister.

## Want to join the conversation?

- what would a diode look like on a circuit board?(8 votes)
- If you have a circuit board and you are trying to figure out which parts are which, you can't always tell for sure, but you can make an educated guess. If the board is made with "surface-mount" components, (search google for "surface mount [your favorite component type here]" to see examples of what they look like. Some things that give a diode away: A diode has only two terminals, never more. It might have a single white or black stripe near one end, indicating the cathode. And look at the white lettering on the circuit board (the "silkscreen" layer) to see if there is a small diode symbol, or if the component is labeled "D1" or "D2" or something like that. That will be a diode.(8 votes)

- Where can I find a video on transistors as amplifiers in Common -Emitter configuration and the explanation of Input current/voltage and Output current/voltage? Thank you.(5 votes)
- Hi Rahul,

I'm not familiar with videos but there is a good textbook here:

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/semiconductors/

I'd like to give you a challenge - do you have access to electronic parts and a soldering iron?

Please leave a comment below.

Regards,

APD(8 votes)

- So a diode conducts in some circumstances, and in other circumstances it doesn't. Is it true than, as I understand, that the resistance of a diode is dependant of the direction and amount of voltage on the diode.(3 votes)
- You are correct. The "resistance" of a diode depends on the magnitude and sign of the voltage across it. I put "resistance" in quotes for a diode because it is not a constant value like it is for a real resistor. For any voltage applied to the diode, there will be a current flowing. The ratio of v/i at that point can be called the "resistance" of the diode. This idea of v/i = r at a specific voltage is how we create a so-called "small-signal model" of a diode or transistor.(6 votes)

- what is the direction of current in a circuit (outside of a DC battery)? Negative to positive? Electron flow vs proton flow? Your answer would help me develop voltage polarities in circuits. OBEARCC(4 votes)
- The following link goes to a video that defines "conventional current" and compares it to "electron current". https://www.khanacademy.org/science/electrical-engineering/introduction-to-ee/intro-to-ee/v/ee-conventional-current. Unless someone explicitly says "electron current" when talking about current, the direction is always the direction a positive charge would flow ("conventional current", or just plain "current").(3 votes)

- Why don't the graphs at2:33beyond the moment that there stops being zero current? ie what should the graph look like for higher voltages? Does the current just go to infinity because there is no resistance or something?(2 votes)
- Hello Jane,

Yes, the current will continue to increase as the voltage is increased - likewise for the increasing negative voltage.

This is an academic discussion. Real components will spectacularly self destruct after a certain current is reached. You can find this current limit in the "data sheet" for the diode.

Here is a small diode:

http://www.smc-diodes.com/propdf/SMBD001030%20N1057%20REV.-.pdf

Here is a large diode;

http://www.vishay.com/docs/93543/vs-sd3000ckseries.pdf

Regards,

APD(4 votes)

- So what is difference between Diode and semi conductor(2 votes)
**Semiconductor**is the general name for a type of material. Silicon, for example, is a semiconductor. A**diode**is a specific kind of electronic component made from a semiconductor material.(3 votes)

- What was the reason behind the drastic increase of current after 0.7(2 votes)
- Great question. Unfortunately the answer for why a silicon diode does that is really complicated. It involves quantum mechanics at the atomic level. You treat an electron as a cloud of probability.(2 votes)

- someone explain to me what e is(2 votes)
- "e" is the base of the natural logarithms. It is simply a number, 2.718281828459...

If you type "exp(1)" into Google you will get this number.

If you type "y = e^x" into Google you get a graph of e^x.

If you haven't studied logarithms yet you are in for a treat when you learn about "e". It has lots of special properties and it shows up a lot in electrical engineering, such as in the Diode equation.(2 votes)

- If we say that holes only appear to be moving in semiconductors. Then how does holes constitute hole current?(2 votes)
- Holes don't just appear to move in semiconductors, they
**do**move. Say you have a row of 10 chairs, and 9 children sitting in the left-most 9 chairs, and 1 empty chair on the far right. If child #9 moves to the right one chair that fills chair 10 and leaves chair 9 empty. Then child #8 hops over to chair 9, leaving chair 8 empty. The same thing happens all the way down the line until chair 1 is empty. I can describe this two equivalent ways. I can say 9 children (electrons) moved to the right one chair each, or I can say 1 empty space (a hole) moved from the right end all the way to the left end. In both cases the "child current" is the same.(1 vote)

- at10:33it is said that: "and what is left is IS times one".

My question is, why it is not IS times negative one ?

Thank you !(2 votes)- Hello Majka,

"Negative one" appears appropriate because we get back what we started with. Here**I_s**is the reverse diode current that we originally measured.

Wikipedia has a helpful summary here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shockley_diode_equation

Regards,

APD(1 vote)

## Video transcript

- [Voiceover] The diode is our
first semi-conductor device, and it's a really important one. Every other semi-conductor
is basically made from combinations of diodes. And here's a picture of
a diode that you can buy. This is a, just a small
little glass package, and that distance right there
is about four millimeters. And inside here, right inside here, is a little silicon chip, and it's manufactured to be a diode. So the question is, what is a diode? A diode is something that
conducts current in one direction, and does not conduct current
in the other direction. And the symbol we use for
a diode looks like this. It has this big arrow here, that points in the direction
of the forward current. One way to understand how a diode works is to draw an IV curve for it. So let's draw an IV curve for a diode. If it was a perfect diode, made
in some unknown technology, what would happen is in
the reverse direction, if the voltage across
the diode was negative, we'll label the voltage this way, if the voltage across the
diode was negative, that is, this terminal is at a higher
voltage than this terminal, there would be zero current flowing. And then for any positive voltage, basically the diode
would look like a wire. So I can call that, that's essentially model number zero of a diode. Now when we build real diodes, what happens is we don't quite
get that perfect behavior, so in particular, if we
build a diode out of silicon, we can go to a, I'll go
to a number one model. And a silicon diode
actually doesn't conduct to a slight positive voltage, and then it would go up like that, where this is around point six volts. For a lot of simple
circuits that we build, this is a pretty good IV model of a diode. Just as a reminder, when we
have the IV curve of resistors, a resistors IV curve
looks something like this, it was a line that went through zero, and had a constant slope, so a diode is a really
different kind of device, it's a non-linear device,
as we can see from this. Let me move up here and now
we'll go to a next level model, that is actually the one
I wanna talk about most. This is the model of diode
that we use most of the time, so I'll call this model number two. This is the model that you use
when you'll simulate circuits or simulate diodes and we're gonna talk about this a little bit more. When you have a diode, if I
gave you a diode like this, and I said what's the IV curve of it? So what I would do is I
would find some sort of box that made voltage for me, a power supply, with an adjustment on it, and then I would also have
something that read current. So this is an ammeter, and
this is a voltage supply. And we hook that up like that. What we're gonna do is we're
gonna generate this IV curve by making actual measurements of I and V. So my first V setting is zero, that gives me this point here, I hope I measure a current of zero, otherwise this thing
would be generating power, which it's not gonna do. And then I turn up the voltage slightly, and what I notice is there's no current, there's no current when
it's at point one volts, or point two volts. And then when it gets to
around point six volts, on the diode, here's VD, and here's, when the voltage on the
diode is around point six volts what I notice is the current goes up. So it goes up to five milliamps, and then a little bit higher,
it goes up to ten milliamps, like that, and I can
plot out all these points along this part of the curve. Now, I go back here and
I change the voltage here to read the other way around, and that means I'm traveling
this way on the voltage axis. And what I'll read, my ammeter,
will read zero milliamps. Zero, zero, zero, zero, zero. And so they plot in this
part of the line here. Now if I make this voltage
really large and really negative, say I make this like minus 50 volts, that's this point here, what happens is I see a really
sharp increasing current, like that right there, and it keeps going. And that is called the
breakdown, VBR is breakdown. And for silicon diodes, minus 50 volts is a
typical value for that. This graph here shows
a break in the scale, so this is minus one
volt, minus two volts, and then we go all the way out
to 50 volts, minus 50 volts, and that's where the breakdown occurs. And most of the time
when we're using diodes, we're using them between
plus or minus one volt across their terminals. That's how we know what the IV
characteristic of a diode is. And what we can do is actually, for this section of the curve right here, for this part of the curve, I can model this with an equation. And the equation looks like this. This is the IV equation for a diode, so this is sort of like
the Ohm's law for a diode. I equals IS, this is the current, times e to the q, that's
the charge on an electron, times V on the diode, that's
the voltage on the diode, divided by kT minus one. K is Boltzmann's constant, and T is the temperature of the device, measured in Kelvin. So this equation actually
fits this part of this curve for a real diode, it's a fitting curve. We'll look at these
constants one at a time. IS is called the saturation current. Saturation current. And for silicon, for
silicon that's a value of about 10 to the minus 12 amperes, which is one picoampere,
that's how much IS is. Q is the charge on an electron, and that equals 1.602 times
10 to the minus 19 coulombs. That's q, VD is the
voltage across the diode, K is Boltzmann's constant,
that's a small k, usually, and that equals 1.38 times 10 to the minus 23 Joules per Kelvin. And the last variable is T, and that's the temperature, and that's measured in
Kelvin, with a big K. Kelvin is the absolute temperature scale, so zero Kelvin equals
minus 273 degrees Celsius. Very, very cold. So this right here is the diode equation, that's the diode IV equation. And it has this exponential shape in it, it has this exponential term in it, but when we look over here, maybe this doesn't look
like an exponential curve, you haven't seen a curve like that. But that actually is just a trick of the scale of this drawing, so what I wanna do now
is I'm gonna zoom in really super close, right
on this origin right here, and we're gonna see how this
exponential term shows up, and we'll see what the meaning of IS is. I equals IS times e qV over KT minus one, and here's a close up,
here's an extreme close-up on the origin of the diode curve. The voltage scale is blown
up by about a factor of 10, so here's 1/10th of a volt
forward across the diode, and the current scale is super blown up, this is in picoamperes now, so this is in 10 to the minus 12th amperes instead of 10 to the minus three. And you can see here, this is a more familiar
looking exponential curve. And over here there's a
little bit of an offset, there's a little tiny current
in the reverse direction when the voltage is negative. And this amount here, that's IS, flowing in the negative
direction in the diode. If we look at the diode equation,
and you let V go negative, what happens is this term
here in the diode equation becomes very, very small compared to one. And what's left is IS times one, and that's what we're
looking at right here. This is a really small current, as you can see from the scale here, it's down in the low picoamps area. Almost all the time you
can ignore this current, and just treat it as zero. Whenever I wanna use a diode in a circuit, and we'll see how we solve
circuits that include these non-linear diodes in them.