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- [Voiceover] So now I wanna talk a little bit about the concept of Feedback. This is a, this is a really important concept. It was developed in the 1920s, the idea of using Feedback, and it was done at, at Bell Labs, Bell Telephone Laboratories. Remember we talked about this on the op amp, this being the, the non-inverting input, so if this voltage went up, this voltage went up, and the negative sign is the inverting input, so these, these voltage here and here, move in opposite directions. And the key to understanding what Feedback is, is to pay attention to this inversion path, and these non-inverting paths. We're gonna start over here with just isolating the voltage divider part of our circuit, so that's copied over here. And when you think about, let's look at what happens if V out goes up. And what happens to V minus in this case? Well V minus goes in what direction in a voltage divider? It goes up. So this is a, this is a non-inverting structure. If V out goes up, then the thing we care about V minus, goes up as well. And likewise if V out goes down, then V minus goes down. So that's isolating just on this part of it, we have no inversion happening around here. So we go around here now, and let's look at what happens on this path here, if we go up in V in, then we know V out goes up. If we then change colors to, let's try this. If V minus goes up, then V out goes down. That's the inverting path. So there's, so there's one inversion in this circuit, and it happens right here where V minus goes to V out, so that's where the inversion is. So now let me set up just an example circuit. We'll set R1 equal to R2. And from the last video, we developed a gain expression, and we said that V out equals R1 plus R2, over R2, times V in, and with these, with these resistor values, V out equals two times V in. Alright, so this is equal to, two times V in. And what does that make this point here? V minus, this is V minus, and from our voltage divider, we know a voltage divider says that V minus equals V out times R2, which is just R, over R plus R, or V minus equals one-half, V out. So, we have let's put a, let's put a voltage on here. Let's put a real voltage on here. Let's say this is at one volt, alright? And going through our amplifier, we know that V out equals two volts, and that means that V minus equals one-half of V out, so V minus is one volt. So this is one volt here. So let's say for the moment, that something happens to the circuit, like we heated up or something like that, and let's say the gain goes up a little bit. Now what that means is, that this amplifier, which is amplifying this voltage difference right here, is gonna be a little higher, so the voltage here is gonna go up a little bit. Let's use this color. It goes up a little bit, and that means that this output voltage is gonna go up a little bit. And we already decided from looking at this voltage divider, that if this point goes up, that this point will go up. It goes up half as much, but it, it goes in the up direction. When this voltage goes up, that means this voltage goes up, and now we find ourselves, we're at the inverting input. We're at the inverting input to the amplifier, and that means what? When a change at the inverting input goes up, that means the output goes down. And that's in the opposite direction of the original change. So this is the mechanism of Feedback. A went up a little bit. We thought that V out would go up a bit, which meant this point goes up, which meant it gets fed back to the input, to the inverting input, and then it goes back down, and this balancing act that's going on right here, that is the mechanism, that is what we call Feedback. You get this Feedback effect, when this connection is made right here, back to the inverting input, to the op amp. And in particular, because it's the inverting input, this is called Negative Feedback. So this is the mechanism of Feedback, in particular, Negative Feedback and, what it does for us is, it provides us a way to exploit and to use, this enormous gain that these amplifiers have, to create really stable, really nicely controlled circuits, that are controlled by the values of the components we attached to the, to the amplifier. So that's the idea of Feedback, a really powerful idea, and really at the heart of analog electronics.