- Formation of hydrates
- Factors determining the stability of hydrates.
- Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals
- Acid and base catalyzed formation of hydrates and hemiacetals
- Formation of acetals
- Acetals as protecting groups and thioacetals
- Hemiacetals and Acetals
- Formation of imines and enamines
- Formation of oximes and hydrazones
- Addition of ammonia derivatives to the carbonyl compounds
- Addition of carbon nucleophiles to aldehydes and ketones
- Addition of carbon nucleophiles to aldehydes and ketones.
- Formation of alcohols using hydride reducing agents
- Oxidation of aldehydes using Tollens' reagent