Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria

Buffer solutions play an important role in many chemical and biological processes. In this tutorial we will learn how buffers resist changes in pH, and how to calculate the pH of a buffer solution.

In this tutorial we will learn how to think about the solubility and precipitation of ionic compounds in the context of chemical equilibrium. We will also look at different factors that can affect the solubility such as pH and the formation of complex ions.