Central dogma (DNA to RNA to protein)

How does a gene in your DNA provide instructions for building a protein? In gene expression, a DNA sequence is first copied to make an RNA molecule, which is then "decoded" to build a protein. Learn more about this remarkable process, shared by all living things.

Get an overview of the "central dogma" of molecular biology! Learn how a gene's DNA is copied into RNA (transcription), which is then "decoded" to specify the amino acid sequence of a protein (translation).

Transcription is the first step in gene expression. It involves copying, or transcribing, the DNA sequence of a gene into the similar "alphabet" of RNA nucleotides. Learn more about this crucial cellular process.

In translation, the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is "decoded" to specify the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Learn more about the steps of this process and the molecules that carry it out.