- Why carbon is everywhere
- Water - Liquid awesome
- Biological molecules - You are what you eat
- Eukaryopolis - The city of animal cells
- In da club - Membranes & transport
- Plant cells
- ATP & respiration
- DNA, hot pockets, & the longest word ever
- Mitosis: Splitting up is complicated
- Meiosis: Where the sex starts
- Natural Selection
- Speciation: Of ligers & men
- Animal development: We're just tubes
- Evolutionary development: Chicken teeth
- Population genetics: When Darwin met Mendel
- Taxonomy: Life's filing system
- Evolution: It's a Thing
- Comparative anatomy: What makes us animals
- Simple animals: Sponges, jellies, & octopuses
- Complex animals: Annelids & arthropods
- Animal behavior
- The nervous system
- Circulatory & respiratory systems
- The digestive system
- The excretory system: From your heart to the toilet
- The skeletal system: It's ALIVE!
- Big Guns: The Muscular System
- Your immune system: Natural born killer
- Great glands - Your endocrine system
- The reproductive system: How gonads go
- Old & Odd: Archaea, Bacteria & Protists
- The sex lives of nonvascular plants
- Vascular plants = Winning!
- The plants & the bees: Plant reproduction
- Fungi: Death Becomes Them
- Ecology - Rules for living on earth
In which Hank does some push ups for science and describes the "economy" of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies store energy in the form of ATP. Created by EcoGeek.
Want to join the conversation?
- If ATP is the "Biological Currency", wouldn't there be inflation? With more ATP being made, Wouldn't you need more to do the work?(19 votes)
- You can't have too much ATP because if you have enough then the body stops producing it until you need it again and then it starts up again(19 votes)
- Could we use ATP to create electrical power? From this quick into, it seems like a very efficient way to create energy. What is keeping us from using it to power our civilization?(18 votes)
- Not directly. ATP is a form of chemical energy, which is used to power different ionic channels in our body. However, it might be possible to use ATP indirectly if you made a nerve cell and put it into an area with enough protons.
Protons can enter and exit a nerve cell rapidly. This movement triggers an electric charge. This charge signals to other nerve cells via protons, and the process is repeated until the destination is reached. If enough nerve cells are used, it might be possible as an alternate source of power.
My science teacher said that these channels are powered by ATP. Thus, it might be possible to indirectly transform chemical energy released by ATP into electrical energy, which is what powers our everyday home appliances.(13 votes)
- How much ATP does our bodies' use a day?(14 votes)
- Well it depends on how much work you do everyday. Your body makes 38 ATP molecules with one molecule of glucose. If you count your daily routine activities like brushing and bathing and doing homework then your body is making thousands or ten thousands or even millions !(1 vote)
- What does NADH stand for?
How does it power ATP production?(7 votes)
- NADH is actually the reduced form of NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) a coenzyme found in living cells. The extra 'H' on 'NADH' means a hydrogen has bonded to NAD.
NADH carries electrons from reaction to reaction and helps the reaction move forward.(7 votes)
- is there any alternative that can be used when our body is not able to synthesis the needed amount of ATP?(5 votes)
- No. Our body is using ATP on the cellular level, so our very cells would die and there would be no life unless we turn into plants. Good question.(4 votes)
- How much ATP do you need to do certain things like, for instance 10 push ups(2 votes)
- Ok this is a hard question to answer for many reasons. First off there is only around 80 grams of ATP in the body. This is actually only enough ATP to preform 2-3 seconds of hard work. The reason humans don't give out after only a short period of work is because, as ATP becomes ADP and thus releases energy, our body uses cretine phosphate to rephosphorlize the ADP into ATP. This still only allows us around 10-15 seconds of strenuous work.The rest of ATP is converted from ADP either in glycolysis or during oxidative phosphorlation in the mitochondria which takes time to "prime" up.
So assuming that doing 10 push ups would be considered strenuous work and assuming that the you do 1 push up a second. It would take around 320 grams of ATP. But this can vary greatly from person to person depending on a multitude of factors. ex) size, muscle mass, current metabolism, ....etc(5 votes)
- Why is oxygen eccentrial to our cells(4 votes)
- Because our cell needs oxygen to change glucose to (ATP) energy. Without oxygen, our cell only can make small energy from glucose.(1 vote)
- Is the process around7:45(when the three carbon chain is converted into a 2 carbon chain which binds with Coenzyme-A to form acetyl coA) oxidative decarboxylation?(3 votes)
- It is. And if you are wondering where does the energy go, I advise you to look up what all co-factors participate in the reaction here.(1 vote)
- the difference between respiration and perspiration?(2 votes)
- Respiration is the act of breathing, and supplying one's body (and consequently the cells in it) with fresh oxygen. Respiration includes both the intake of air, and the exhalation of air, the latter act also removing useless or toxic gases from the body, such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Perspiration occurs when fluid is excreted from the body's sweat glands, and process more commonly known as sweating.(3 votes)
- Why Does The Body Movement React To The Drugs Regarding Influments?(3 votes)
- If we are speaking of medication-induced Tardive Dyskinesia...
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that causes involuntary, repetitive body movements and is commonly seen in patients who are on long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications.
TD most generally occurs in individuals who are on long-term treatment with dopaminergic antagonist medications.
Several hypotheses have been proposed that include prolonged blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors leading to dopamine receptor supersensitivity, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depletion, cholinergic deficiency, oxidative stress, altered synaptic plasticity, neurotoxicity, and defective neuroadaptive signaling.
chronic dopamine blockade can result in the upregulation of dopamine receptor responsiveness that can result in an exaggerated response of the postsynaptic dopamine receptors to dopamine.
The result of increased dopamine metabolism is an increase in the production of free radicals. Monoamine oxidase, the enzyme that metabolizes dopamine, and dopamine itself can cause lipid peroxidation and the alteration of antioxidant enzymes which can lead to cell death.
Read more about it here:
- Oh, hello there. Um, I'm at the gym, I don't know why you're here, but I'm going to do some push-ups. You can join me on the floor if you want. I'm not doing this just to show off or anything, I'm actually doing this for science, okay. (pained grunt) See what happened there? My arms moved, my shoulders moved, my back and stomach muscles moved, my heart pumped blood to all those different places, it's pretty neat, huh? Well, it turns out that how we make and use energy is a lot like sports or other kinds of exercise. Can be hard work and a little bit complicated, but if you do it right, it comes with some tremendous payoffs. But unlike hitting a ball with a stick, it's so marvelously complicated and awesome that we're still unraveling the mysteries of how it all works, and it all starts with a marvelous molecule that is one of your best friends: ATP. (upbeat music) Today I'm talking about energy and the process our cells, and other animal cells, go through to provide themselves with power. Cellular respiration is how we derive energy from the food that we eat. Specifically from glucose, since most of what we eat ends up as glucose. Here's the chemical formula for one molecule of glucose. In order to turn this glucose into energy, we're going to need to add some oxygen. Six molecules of it, to be exact. Through cellular respiration, we're going to turn that glucose and oxygen into six molecules of CO2, six molecules of water, and some energy that we can use for doing all our push ups. So that's all well and good, but here's the thing. We can't just use that energy to run a marathon or something. First our bodies have to turn that energy into a really specific form of stored energy called ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. You've heard me talk about this before. People often refer to ATP as the currency of biological energy. Think of it as an American dollar. It's what you need to do business in the U.S. You can't just walk into a Best Buy with a handful of Chinese yen or Indian rupees and expect to be able to buy anything with them, even though they are technically money. Same goes with energy. In order to be able to use it, our cells need energy to be transferred into adenosine triphosphate to be able to grow, move, create electrical impulses in our nerves and brains. Everything. A while back, for instance, we talked about how cells use ATP to transport some kinds of materials in and out of its membranes. To jog your memory about that, you can watch that episode right here. Now before we see how ATP is actually put together, let's look at how cells can cash in on the energy that's stashed in there. Well, adenosine triphosphate is made up of a nitrogenous base called adenine with a sugar called ribose and three phosphate groups attached to it. Now one thing you need to know about these three phosphate groups is that they are super uncomfortable sitting together in a row like that, like three kids on a bus who hate each other all sharing the same seat. So because the phosphate groups are such terrible company for each other, ATP is able to do this this nifty trick where it shoots one of the phosphates groups off the end of the seat, creating ADP, or adenosine diphosphate, because now there are just two kids sitting on the bus seat. In this reaction, when the third jerk kid is kicked off the seat, energy is released. And since there are a lot of water molecules just floating around nearby, an OH pairing, that's called a hydroxide, from some H2Os comes over and takes the place of that third phosphate group. And everybody is much happier. By the way, when you use water to break down a compound like this, it's called hydrolysis, hydro from water and lysis from the Greek word for separate. So now that you know how ATP is spent, let's see how it is minted, nice and new, by cellular respiration. Like I said, it all starts with oxygen and glucose. In fact, textbooks make a point of saying that through cellular respiration, one molecule of glucose can yield a bit of heat and 38 molecules of ATP. Now, it's worth noting that this number is kind of a best case scenario. Usually it's more like 29 or 30 ATPs, but whatever, people are still studying this stuff, so let's stick with that number, 38. Now cellular respiration isn't something that just happens all at once, glucose is transformed into ATPs over three separate stages: glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. Traditionally these stages are described as coming one after the other, but really everything in a cell is kinda happening all at the same time. But let's start with the first step: glycolysis, or the breaking down of the glucose. Glucose, of course, is a sugar. You know this because it's got an "ose" at the end of it. And glycolysis is just the breaking up of glucose's six carbon ring into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvic acids or pyruvate molecules. Now in order to explain how exactly glycolysis works, I'd need about an hour of your time, and a giant cast of finger puppets each playing a different enzyme, and though it would pain me to do it, I'd have to use words like phosphoglucoisomerase. But one simple way of explaining it is like this. If you wanna make money, you gotta spend money. Glycolysis needs the investment of two ATPs in order to work, and in the end it generates four ATPs, for a net profit, if you will, of two ATPs. In addition to those four ATPs, glycolysis also results in two pyruvates and two super-energy-rich morsels called NADH, which are sort of the love-children of a B vitamin called NAD+ pairing with energized electrons and a hydrogen to create storehouses of energy that will later be tapped to make ATP. To help us keep track of all of the awesome stuff we're making here, let's keep score? So far we've created two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH, which will be used to power more ATP production later. Now, a word about oxygen. Like I mentioned, oxygen is necessary for the overall process of cellular respiration. But not every stage of it. Glycolysis, for example, can take place without oxygen, which makes it an anaerobic process. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvates formed through glycolysis gets rerouted into a process called fermentation. If there's no oxygen in the cell, it needs more of that NAD+ to keep the glycolysis going. So fermentation frees up some NAD+, which happens to create some interesting by products. For instance, in some organisms, like yeasts, the product of fermentation is ethyl alcohol, which is the same thing as all of this lovely stuff. But luckily for our day-to-day productivity, our muscles don't make alcohol when they don't get enough oxygen. If that were the case, working out would make us drunk, which actually would be pretty awesome, but instead of ethyl alcohol, they make lactic acid. Which is what makes you feel sore after that workout that kicked your butt. So, your muscles used up all the oxygen they had, and they had to kick into anaerobic respiration in order to get the energy that they needed, and so you have all this lactic acid building up in your muscle tissues. (grunts) Back to the score. Now we've made two molecules of ATP through glycolysis, but your cells really need the oxygen in order to make the other 30-some molecules that they need. That's because the next two stages of cellular respiration, the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain, are both aerobic processes, which means that they require oxygen. And so we find ourselves at the next step in cellular respiration. After glycolosis comes the Krebs Cycle. So, while glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, or the fluid medium within the cell that all the organelles hang out in, the Krebs Cycle happens across the inner membrane of the mitochondria, which are generally considered the power centers of the cell. The Krebs Cycle takes the products of glycolysis, those carbon-rich pyruvates, and reworks them to create another two ATPs per glucose molecule, plus some energy in a couple of other forms, which I'll talk about in a minute. Here's how. First, one of the pyruvates is oxidized, which basically means it's combined with oxygen. One of the carbons off the three-carbon chain bonds with an oxygen molecule and leaves the cell as CO2. What's left is a two-carbon compound called acetyl coenzyme A, or acetyl coA. Then, another NAD+ comes along, picks up a hydrogen and becomes NADH. So our two pyruvates create another two molecules of NADH to be used later. As in glycolysis, and really all life, enzymes are essential here. They are proteins that bring together the stuff that needs to react with each other, and they bring it together in just the right way. These enzymes, for example, bring together a phosphate with an ADP, to create another ATP molecule for each pyruvate. Enzymes also help join the acetyl coA and a four-carbon molecule called oxaloacetic acid. I think that's how you pronounce it. Together they form a six-carbon molecule called citric acid, and I'm certain that's how you pronounce that one because that's the stuff that's in orange juice. (jazzy piano music) Fun fact: The Krebs Cycle is also known as the Citric Acid Cycle because of this very byproduct. But it's usually referred to by the name of the man who figured it all out. Hans Krebs, an ear, nose, and throat surgeon who fled Nazi Germany to teach biochemistry at Cambridge, where he discovered this incredibly complex cycle in 1937. For being such a total freaking genius, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1953. Anyway, the citric acid is then oxidized over a bunch of intricate steps, cutting carbons off left and right, to eventually get back to oxaloacetic acid, which is what makes the Krebs Cycle a cycle. And as the carbons get cleaved off the citric acid, there are leftovers in the form of CO2 or carbon dioxide, which are exhaled by the cell, and eventually by you. You and I, as we continue our existence as people, are exhaling the products of the Krebs Cycle right now. Good work. (inhales and exhales) This video, by the way, I'm using a lot of ATP making it. Now, each time a carbon comes off of the citric acid, some energy is made, but it's not ATP. It's stored in a whole different kind of molecular package. This is where we go back to NAD+ and its sort of colleague, FAD. NAD+ and FAD are both chummy little enzymes that are related to B vitamins, derivatives of Niacin and Riboflavin, which you might have seen in the vitamin aisle. These B vitamins are good at holding on to high energy electrons and keeping that energy until it can get released later in the electron transport chain. In fact, they're so good at it that they show up in a lot of those high energy-vitamin powders the kids are taking these days. NAD+s and FADs are like batteries, big awkward batteries that pick up hydrogen and energized electrons from each pyruvate, which in effect charges them up. The addition of hydrogen turns them into NADH and FADH2, respectively. Each pyruvate yields three NADHs and one FADH2 per cycle, and since each glucose has been broken down into two pyruvates, that means that each glucose molecule can produce six NADHs and two FADH2s. The main purpose of the Krebs Cycle is to make these powerhouses for the next and final step, the electron transport chain. And now's the time when you're saying, "Sweet pyruvate sandwiches, Hank, "aren't we supposed to be making ATP here? "Let's make it happen, Capt'n! "What's the holdup?" Well friends, your patience is finally paying off, because when it comes to ATPs, the electron transport chain is the real moneymaker. In a very efficient cell, it can net a whopping 34 ATPs. So, remember all those NADHs and FADH2s that we made in the Krebs Cycle? Well, their electrons are going to provide the energy that will work as a pump along a chain of channel proteins across the inner membrane of the mitochondria where the Krebs Cycle occurred. These proteins will swap these electrons to send hydrogen protons from inside the very center of the mitochondria, across its inner membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria. But once they're out, the protons want to get back to the other side of the inner membrane, because there's a lot of other protons out there, and as we've learned, nature always tends to seek a nice, peaceful balance on either side of a membrane. So all of these anxious protons are allowed back in through a special protein called ATP synthase. And the energy of this proton flow drives this crazy spinning mechanism that squeezes some ADP and some phosphates together to form ATP. So, the electrons from the 10 NADHs that come out of the Krebs Cycle have just enough energy to produce roughly three ATPs each. And we can't forget our friends, the FADH2s. We have two of them and they make two ATPs each. And voila! That is how animal cells the world over make ATP through cellular respiration. Now just to check, let's reset our ATP counter and do the math for a single glucose molecule once again. We made two ATPs for each pyruvate during glycolysis. We made two in the Krebs Cycle. And then during the electron transport chain, we made about 34. And that's just for one molecule of glucose. Imagine how much your body makes and uses every single day.