Current time:0:00Total duration:6:50
0 energy points
Studying for a test? Prepare with these 2 lessons on Bacteria and archaea.
See 2 lessons

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Video transcript
when we want to categorize life as we know it at a very high level we can categorize it as either you carry out ik you carry Arctic or as a you carry 02 you carry ot or as a pro carry it pro perot carry out and the largest distinction between a you carry out and a pro carry out are membrane-bound structures that you carry a tab the pro carry its per carry out don't have and the most noticeable love which is a membrane-bound nucleus Sony you carry on the genetic information is going to be inside a membrane-bound nucleus so this right over here this is the nucleus this is the nucleus and you have your genetic information inside you have your DNA here for pro carry out Excel you're going to have your DNA might be bundled up into a section on the cell would call that a new Clio read but it's not membrane-bound so let me write this down no no membrane membrane membrane let me read all membrane bound membrane bound nucleus but that's not just the that's not the only distinction between new you carry oats and pro carrots all those the one that's most noted in fact the word you carry 02 the carrier part comes from the Greek or not or kernel so me make this clear so this is referring to a not a not or a colonel or a colonel while pro carry it means before the not or kernel so we don't see in you know you could think of the not or the kernel as the membrane-bound structures bus to the membrane brown nucleus or here but that's not all you carry it will also have other membrane-bound structures that you will not see in pro carry out for example you will tend to see my doc Andrea my toe might ok Andrea in a you carry out excel both plant and animal cells but you won't see it in a pro carry on Excel and there's other types of membrane-bound structures you can see things like like Golgi apparatus this overhears a micrograph over you carry out Excel and you see the Golgi apparatus right over here which helps package proteins you see a micrograph my dick Andrea this is a micrograph above the nucleus so this right over here is the nuclear nuclear membrane and then you see all the genetic information it's all spread out in chromatin form right over your body city especially densely packed right over here and we've also depicted in this right over there so this is all the DNA in chrome to inform but this part that looks extra denser dark in this micrograph right over there we call that that the nucleolar us we call that the new nucleolar us and we now know that this is where Reiber so more are in a is being produced and Riva so Malaren a there that part that forms part of the structure over ribosomes which are essential in the translation well I guess you see the construction of proteins based on the information in mRNA and we go to a lot more depth than that in other videos so this is this these Arriba sold right over here and they're made up of rivals or more in a and they're also made up of proteins and so this new Clio store there that's where that's where that's happening that denser part above the nucleus so the key distinction you carry out ik cell you have a a nuclear a a membrane-bound a nucleus you have other membrane brown structures like my dick Andrea in fact there some theories and mitochondria first evolved as as pro carry attic organisms that eventually lived in sin BIOS is inside of you carry attic insight into a larger you carry at Excel and the other distinction is that in you carry out the DNA tends to be in multiple strands so the DNA if you were to kinda straighten it out it would be in multiple strands wanna pro carry out the DNA tends to be the DNA tends to be circular can be all it can be altered looked around and whatever else we the entity a it would be circular DNA so those are the three core distinctions nuclear membrane other membrane bound organelles like my dick Andrea and gold G and and the Gorgie apparatus and then you also single trans multiple single strands of DNA verses circular DNA other things is that you carry outs tend to be larger while pro carriers tend to be smaller they tend to be simpler so now that we know the key distinctions what are examples love you carry outs well you carry oats include most of what we interact with on a daily basis or we think we're interacting with on a daily basis this includes all multicellular organisms so multicellular multi cellular organisms I'm thinking animals plants funky it includes protest this is a pair museum right over here this is you carry on tickets going to have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles this right over here these are onion root tip cells so these are plant cells and you can actually see it's been stained you can actually see the membrane-bound nucleus here this is actually cool picture could you can see the cells and different a different stages of my toes is which is interesting animal cells the things that make you you you are you carry attic so what is pro carry a dick well bacteria is probably the most common example that bacteria read or hear these are pro these are pro carry outs and lesser talk or her things the thing that's talked about a lot less is our care and RK people initially thought that these were former bacteria that just lived in in very extreme conditions but now they know there's a good two completely different domain of life are Arkeia arc here and so when we think about the domains of life people the current the current thought is that you have bacteria here bacteria here you have Arkeia you have Arkeia are kaya and then you have and then you have you carry oats I do there your then you have you carry oats you carry oats and these are things that have all the the trees that we've talked about it so these include plants and animals and fun guy and you saw your you carry out such protests and things like that and so we once again this high-level we would consider these pro carry oats and these of course are the you carry oats so hopefully that gives you a good overview of things