Main content


Thermodynamics part 1: Molecular theory of gasesThermodynamics part 2: Ideal gas lawThermodynamics part 3: Kelvin scale and Ideal gas law exampleThermodynamics part 4: Moles and the ideal gas lawThermodynamics part 5: Molar ideal gas law problemWhat is the ideal gas law?Maxwell-Boltzmann distributionWhat is the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution?
Specific heat and latent heat of fusion and vaporizationThermal conduction, convection, and radiationThermal conductionThermal conductivity of metal and woodIntuition behind formula for thermal conductivityWhat is thermal conductivity?
Macrostates and microstatesQuasistatic and reversible processesFirst law of thermodynamics / internal energyMore on internal energyWhat is the first law of thermodynamics?Work from expansionPV-diagrams and expansion workWhat are PV diagrams?Proof: U = (3/2)PV or U = (3/2)nRTWork done by isothermic processCarnot cycle and Carnot engineProof: Volume ratios in a Carnot cycleProof: S (or entropy) is a valid state variableThermodynamic entropy definition clarificationReconciling thermodynamic and state definitions of entropyEntropy intuitionMaxwell's demonMore on entropyEfficiency of a Carnot engineCarnot efficiency 2: Reversing the cycleCarnot efficiency 3: Proving that it is the most efficient

About this unit

Heat can be useful, but it can also be annoying. Understanding heat and the flow of heat allows us to build heat sinks that prevent our computers from overheating, build better engines, and prevent freeway overpasses from cracking.
AP® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which has not reviewed this resource.