AP®︎/College Physics 2
- Introduction to magnetism
- Magnetic force on a charge
- What is magnetic force?
- Cross product 1
- Cross product 2
- The dot product
- Dot vs. cross product
- Calculating dot and cross products with unit vector notation
- Magnetic force on a proton example (part 1)
- Magnetic force on a proton example (part 2)
- Magnetic force on a current carrying wire
Learn what magnetic force is and how to calculate it.
What is the magnetic force?
The magnetic force is a consequence of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature, and is caused by the motion of charges. Two objects containing charge with the same direction of motion have a magnetic attraction force between them. Similarly, objects with charge moving in opposite directions have a repulsive force between them.
In our article on magnetic fields we learned how moving charge surrounds itself with a magnetic field. In this context the magnetic force is a force that arises due to interacting magnetic fields.
How to find the magnetic force?
Consider two objects. The magnitude of the magnetic force between them depends on how much charge is in how much motion in each of the two objects and how far apart they are. The direction of the force depends on the relative directions of motion of the charge in each case.
The usual way to go about finding the magnetic force is framed in terms of a fixed amount of charge
moving at constant velocity in a uniform magnetic field . If we don't know the magnitude of the magnetic field directly then we can still use this method because it is often possible to calculate the magnetic field based on the distance to a known current.
The magnetic force is described by the Lorentz Force law:
In this form it is written using the vector cross product. We can write the magnitude of the magnetic force by expanding the cross product. Written in terms of the angle
( ) between the velocity vector and the magnetic field vector:
The direction of the force can be found using the right-hand-slap rule. This rule describes the direction of the force as the direction of a 'slap' of an open hand. As with the right-hand-grip rule, the fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field. The thumb points in the direction that positive charge is moving. If the moving charge is negative (for example, electrons) then you need to reverse the direction of your thumb because the force will be in the opposite direction. Alternatively, you can use your left hand for moving negative charge.
Sometimes we want to find the force on a wire carrying a current
in a magnetic field. This can be done by rearranging our previous expression. If we recall that velocity is a distance / time then if a wire has length we can write
and since current is the amount of charge flowing per second,
Force on a wire
Figure 2 shows a wire running through the north and south poles of a horseshoe magnet. A battery is connected to the wire which causes a current of
to flow through the wire in the direction shown. If the magnetic field between the poles is known to be , what is the magnitude and direction of the force on the section of wire between the poles?
Suppose the magnet was shifted a little to the left so that the wire is now closer to the south pole of the magnet. Would you expect any change in the force on the wire?
Suppose the strength of the magnet was not known. Can you suggest a way to modify this experiment to measure the strength of the magnetic field? Assume you have a ruler, string and some calibrated weights available.
Magnetic deflection of electrons in a cathode-ray tube
A cathode ray tube is an evacuated tube with an electron gun at one end and a phosphorescent screen at the other end. Electrons are ejected from the electron gun at high speed and impact the screen where a spot of light is produced on impact with the phosphor.
Because electrons have charge it is possible to deflect them in-flight with either the electric or magnetic force. Controlling the deflection allows the spot of light to be moved around the screen. Old style 'tube' televisions use this principle with magnetic deflection to form images by rapidly scanning the spot.
Figure 3 shows a cathode ray tube experiment. A pair of coils are placed outside a cathode ray tube and produce a uniform magnetic field across the tube (not shown). In response to the field, the electrons are deflected and follow a path which is a segment of a circle as shown in the figure. What is the direction of the magnetic field?
If the electrons are known to be ejected from the electron gun horizontally at a speed
of , what is the strength of the magnetic field? Assume that the radius of the circular path can be approximated by where is the length of the tube and is the horizontal deflection.
Want to join the conversation?
- what is left hand slap rule(8 votes)
- >Find out if the charge is negative or positive
>If positive use right hand, if negative use left hand
>hold left/right hand out in front of you
>point thumb in direction charge is going
>the way your palm is facing tells you which way the field is going
> profit.(23 votes)
- what is electromagnetic induction(10 votes)
- Hello Yashwin,
Electromagnetic induction is what keeps the lights on!
Our generators operate on this principle. All you need is a wire and a moving magnetic field. Or you could have a stationary magnetic field and a moving wire. Either way, the magnetic field appears to be changing from the wire's perspective. When this occurs a current will be induced in the wire. Sal has done a few videos on this topic. See:
- Is exercise 2b correct? The answer when I calculate it is 1.422 x 10^-4 T. Unless I'm entering the information in the calculator wrong, there maybe an arithmetic error here...
Here is what I punched in (even within google, you can copy and paste):
((9.1 * 10^-31) * (2 * 10^7)) / ((1.6 * 10^-19) * .8)(6 votes)
- So, this isn't a huge deal I think, but in question 2b, when it says "d is the horizontal deflection", it means the amount the electron is deflected from its original path right? Shouldn't it say vertical deflection instead?(6 votes)
- what does 'in/out of the page' mean?(3 votes)
- In the page means the vector is pointing straight perpendicular into the page/screen. Similar for out.(5 votes)
- "From the left-hand slap rule, we know that the magnetic force is perpendicular to the velocity. This is also the condition that gives rise to circular motion."
I don't understand how magnetic force when perpendicular to the velocity gives rise to circular motion?(4 votes)
- That's how you move in a circle, by constantly accelerating in a direction that is perpendicular to your velocity at that moment. Review circular motion.(4 votes)
- plz explain 1c, why the wire gets deflected and how the weight is measured as well as the direction of magnetic field?(5 votes)
- I could not understand the exercise 2b solution. I have problem with the cathode ray tube experiment.(3 votes)
- How was the formula F=qvB derived ? Can somebody explain?(3 votes)