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Video transcript

so what are some applications of DNA technology applications DNA technology all right well let's let's first look at medicine so what are some applications of DNA technology in medicine well one of the really big the two big things where recombinant DNA technology was first used was to create insulin and human growth hormone human growth hormone so before the advent of recombinant DNA technology insulin and growth hormone were really really hard to manufacture you basically had to isolate it from another human cura Fayyad and then give it to patients but with the recombinant DNA technology you can basically just grow these proteins in e.coli you can grow them and culture them in e.coli bacteria so this really has changed the way that medicine is practice and it's really helped a whole bunch of people so vaccines is another application of DNA technology a while ago vaccines were made by first denaturing the disease and then after the disease has been weakened they would inject it into a human and they would hope that their immune system would be able to put up a fight against the weakened virus and that way in the future if they were infected with that virus they would at least have some kind of immune response towards the virus the problem with this was that the patient would sometimes get the disease because you're injecting a weak virus but sometimes it wasn't weak enough so with DNA technology they can actually create recreate the outer shell of the virus and inject that so it's a lot more cost effective than it doesn't have the risk of actually causing the disease in the in the host so this is much safer and it is cheaper and it's very OTT it produces a better immune response and so some vaccines that we actually use recombinant DNA technology to create include the Hep B virus and hep have B virus and the herpes virus and malaria so these are some applications of DNA technology and medicine another cool application of DNA technology is in solving crimes so solving crimes so in forensics so there are parts of the genome known as non-coding regions of the genome and these regions can actually help forensic scientists identify specific individuals so they can look at things like short tandem repeats STRs and these are basically short sequences of DNA like 2 to 6 base pairs long and they're normally found in really high amounts they're just these short repeats that are found in really high amounts and to varying degrees between the firm vigils so they actually sequence these short tandem repeats they could identify specific individuals given a DNA sample on they can also look at mitochondrial DNA so mitochondrial DNA is inherited from your mother and it's found in really high amounts within an individual cell so even if there's very little sample available and the forensic scientists can analyze mitochondrial DNA in order to identify a potential suspect another another technology that is used in forensic science is Y chromosome typing so that's basically why STR and this is looking at short tandem repeats that on the y chromosome and so DNA technology has helped scientists pick out individuals on that committed various crimes based on DNA samples that that people that they were able to find so agriculture is another field that has greatly benefited from recombinant DNA technology so for example scientists can now create plants that are the crops that are resistant to insects and they are that are resistant to herbicides and can also delay ripening of the crops so that you can transport the crop from the farm to the store so by doing this you're basically able to create more crops to feed a growing population of individuals and it also helps with the economy because then you've got farmers that are growing all their crops and if there was some sort of bacteria or virus that was able that destroy their entire crop then that farmer would not get paid for that season so by transgenic lee modifying the crop so that it's resistant to specific things then they're able to grow their crops sell it and feed individuals
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