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AP®︎ Biology content aligned to standards

This page lists every piece of course content once and shows all the standards covered by that content. So, standards may appear more than once in this view. If you would like to quickly see all of the course content aligned to a particular standard, the Standards aligned to content page may be better suited.

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Each of our units is listed with a table of its contents, with the course content on the left side (Lessons ☰, Articles 📝, Videos 📺, and Exercises ✅) and the covered standards on the right side.
Place your cursor over a standard to reveal its description. Click a piece of course content to visit that Unit, Lesson, Article, Video, or Exercise.
If you’re looking for all of the course content that’s aligned with a particular standard, you can use the “Find” feature of your browser to search for the standard or use the Standards aligned to content page.
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ContentStandards
Structure of water and hydrogen bonding
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📺 Hydrogen bonding in water
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📝 Hydrogen bonds in water
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📺 Capillary action and why we see a meniscus
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📺 Surface tension
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📝 Cohesion and adhesion of water
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📺 Water as a solvent
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📝 Specific heat, heat of vaporization, and density of water
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📺 Importance of water for life
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📝 Lesson summary: Water and life
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Structure of water and hydrogen bonding
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Elements of life
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📺 Elements and atoms
📝 Matter, elements, and atoms
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📺 Carbon as a building block of life
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📝 Carbon and hydrocarbons
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📺 Functional groups
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📝 Functional groups
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📺 Elemental building blocks of biological molecules
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Elements of life
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Introduction to biological macromolecules
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📺 Ionic bonds
📺 Covalent bonds
📝 Chemical bonds
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📝 Introduction to macromolecules
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📺 Dehydration synthesis or a condensation reaction
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📺 Hydrolysis
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Introduction to biological macromolecules
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Properties, structure, and function of biological macromolecules
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📺 Molecular structure of DNA
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📺 Antiparallel structure of DNA strands
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📺 Molecular structure of RNA
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📺 Introduction to amino acids
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📺 Overview of protein structure
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📺 Introduction to carbohydrates
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📝 Carbohydrates
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📺 Molecular structure of triglycerides (fats)
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📺 Saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and trans fats
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📝 Biological macromolecules review
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Properties, structure, and function of biological macromolecules
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Nucleic acids
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📺 DNA
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📺 Molecular structure of DNA
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📺 Antiparallel structure of DNA strands
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📺 Molecular structure of RNA
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📝 Nucleic acids
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Nucleic acids
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ContentStandards
Cell structures and their functions
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📺 Introduction to the cell
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📺 Organelles in eukaryotic cells
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📝 Intro to eukaryotic cells
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📺 Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies
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📺 Endomembrane system
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📝 The endomembrane system
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📺 Mitochondria
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📝 Mitochondria and chloroplasts
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Cell structures and their functions
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Cell size
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📺 Scale of cells
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📺 Cell size
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📺 Introduction to cilia, flagella and pseudopodia
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📺 Surface area to volume ratio of cells
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📺 Surface area of a box (cuboid)
📺 Volume of a sphere
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Cell size
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Plasma membranes
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📺 Fluid mosaic model of cell membranes
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📺 Cell membrane proteins
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📝 Structure of the plasma membrane
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📝 The cell membrane review
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Plasma membranes
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Membrane permeability
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📺 Cell membrane introduction
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📺 Cell membrane overview and fluid mosaic model
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📝 Fluid mosaic model: cell membranes article
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📺 Plant cell walls
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📝 The extracellular matrix and cell wall
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Membrane permeability
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Membrane transport
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📺 Introduction to passive and active transport
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📺 Passive transport and selective permeability
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📝 Passive transport review
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📝 Active transport review
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📺 Endocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis
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📺 Exocytosis
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📝 Bulk transport
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Membrane transport
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Facilitated diffusion
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📺 Facilitated diffusion
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📝 Diffusion and passive transport
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📺 Electrochemical gradients and secondary active transport
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📺 Uniporters, symporters and antiporters
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📝 Active transport
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📺 Sodium potassium pump
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📝 Active transport review
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Facilitated diffusion
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Mechanisms of transport: tonicity and osmoregulation
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📺 Diffusion and osmosis
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📺 Osmosis
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📺 Hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions (tonicity)
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📝 Osmosis and tonicity
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📺 Water potential example
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Mechanisms of transport: tonicity and osmoregulation
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Cell compartmentalization and its origins
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📺 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
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📝 Intro to eukaryotic cells
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📺 Endomembrane system
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📝 The endomembrane system
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📺 Endosymbiosis theory
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📝 Mitochondria and chloroplasts
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📝 Prokaryotes and eukaryotes review
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Cell compartmentalization
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ContentStandards
Enzyme structure and catalysis
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📺 Enzymes
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📝 Activation energy
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📝 Enzymes and the active site
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📝 Enzymes review
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Enzyme structure and catalysis
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Environmental impacts on enzyme function
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📝 Enzymes review
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📺 Enzyme reaction velocity and pH
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📺 Competitive inhibition
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📺 Noncompetitive inhibition
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📝 Enzyme regulation
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📝 Basics of enzyme kinetics graphs
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Environmental impacts on enzyme function
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Cellular energy
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📺 First Law of Thermodynamics introduction
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📺 Second Law of Thermodynamics and entropy
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📺 Reaction coupling to create glucose-6-phosphate
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📝 ATP and reaction coupling
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📺 Introduction to metabolism: Anabolism and catabolism
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📝 Overview of metabolism
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Cellular energy
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Photosynthesis
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📺 Photosynthesis
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📝 Intro to photosynthesis
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📺 Breaking down photosynthesis stages
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📺 Conceptual overview of light dependent reactions
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📝 The light-dependent reactions
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📝 The Calvin cycle
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📺 Photosynthesis evolution
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📝 Photosynthesis review
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Photosynthesis
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Cellular respiration
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📺 Cellular respiration introduction
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📝 Introduction to cellular respiration and redox
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📝 Steps of cellular respiration
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📺 Overview of cellular respiration
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📺 Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain
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📝 Oxidative phosphorylation
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📝 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration
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📺 ATP synthase
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Cellular respiration
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Fitness
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📺 Molecular variation
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Fitness
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ContentStandards
Cell communication
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📺 Cellular communication
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📺 Overview of cell signaling
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📝 Introduction to cell signaling
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📝 Cell-cell signaling in unicellular organisms
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📺 Intro to the endocrine system
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📝 Cell-cell junctions
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Cell communication
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Signal transduction
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📺 Membrane Receptors
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📝 Ligands & receptors
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📺 G Protein Coupled Receptors
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📝 Signal relay pathways
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📺 Cellular mechanism of hormone action
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📝 Response to a signal
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📺 Example of a signal transduction pathway
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📺 Cell signaling in yeast reproduction
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📝 Cell-cell signaling in unicellular organisms
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Signal transduction
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Changes in signal transduction pathways
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📺 G Protein Coupled Receptors
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📝 Signal relay pathways
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📺 Example of a signal transduction pathway
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📺 Activation and inhibition of signal transduction pathways
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Changes in signal transduction pathways
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Feedback
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📺 Homeostasis
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📝 Homeostasis
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📺 Hormone concentration metabolism and negative feedback
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Feedback
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Cell cycle
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📺 Interphase
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📝 Phases of the cell cycle
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📺 Mitosis
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📝 Phases of mitosis
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📝 Chromosomes
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Cell cycle
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Regulation of cell cycle
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📺 Cell cycle control
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📝 Cell cycle checkpoints
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📝 Cell cycle regulators
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📺 Loss of cell cycle control in cancer
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📝 Cancer and the cell cycle
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Regulation of cell cycle
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ContentStandards
Meiosis and genetic diversity
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📺 Fertilization terminology: gametes, zygotes, haploid, diploid
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📺 Chromosomal crossover in meiosis I
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📺 Phases of meiosis I
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📺 Phases of meiosis II
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📝 Meiosis
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📺 Comparing mitosis and meiosis
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Meiosis and genetic diversity
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Mendelian genetics
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📺 Introduction to heredity
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📺 Fertilization terminology: gametes, zygotes, haploid, diploid
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📺 Alleles and genes
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📺 Worked example: Punnett squares
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📝 Mendel and his peas
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📝 The law of segregation
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📝 The law of independent assortment
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📝 Probabilities in genetics
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📺 Pedigrees
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Mendelian genetics
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Non-Mendelian genetics
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📝 Variations on Mendel's laws (overview)
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📺 Thomas Hunt Morgan and fruit flies
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📝 The chromosomal basis of inheritance
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📝 X-linked inheritance
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📝 Genetic linkage & mapping
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📺 Pedigree for determining probability of exhibiting sex linked recessive trait
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📝 Pedigrees review
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📺 Extranuclear inheritance 1
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📝 Inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA
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Non-Mendelian genetics
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Environmental effects on phenotype
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📺 Phenotype plasticity
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📺 Gene environment interaction
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📝 Polygenic inheritance and environmental effects
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Environmental effects on phenotype
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Chromosomal inheritance
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📺 Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory
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📝 The chromosomal basis of inheritance
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📝 Aneuploidy & chromosomal rearrangements
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📺 Variation in a species
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Chromosomal inheritance
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ContentStandards
DNA and RNA structure
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📺 Introduction to nucleic acids and nucleotides
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📺 DNA
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📺 Molecular structure of DNA
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📺 Molecular structure of RNA
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📝 Nucleic acids
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📝 Prokaryote structure
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DNA and RNA structure
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Replication
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📺 Antiparallel structure of DNA strands
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📺 Leading and lagging strands in DNA replication
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📺 Speed and precision of DNA replication
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📺 Semi conservative replication
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📝 Molecular mechanism of DNA replication
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📝 DNA structure and replication review
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Replication
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Transcription and RNA processing
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📺 Molecular structure of RNA
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📝 Nucleic acids
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📺 Transcription and mRNA processing
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📺 Post-transcriptional regulation
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,
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📝 Eukaryotic gene transcription: Going from DNA to mRNA
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📝 Overview of transcription
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📝 Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processing
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Transcription and RNA processing
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Translation
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📺 Translation (mRNA to protein)
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📝 Overview of translation
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📺 Retroviruses
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📺 Differences in translation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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📺 DNA replication and RNA transcription and translation
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📝 Intro to gene expression (central dogma)
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📝 The genetic code
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Translation
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Regulation of gene expression and cell specialization
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📺 DNA and chromatin regulation
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📺 Regulation of transcription
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📺 Cellular specialization (differentiation)
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📺 Non-coding RNA (ncRNA)
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📺 Operons and gene regulation in bacteria
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📝 Overview: Gene regulation in bacteria
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📺 Lac operon
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,
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📝 The lac operon
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,
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📝 Overview: Eukaryotic gene regulation
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📝 Transcription factors
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Regulation of gene expression and cell specialization
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Mutations
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📺 An introduction to genetic mutations
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📺 Mutagens and carcinogens
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,
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📺 The effects of mutations
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,
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📺 Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids
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,
📺 Mutation as a source of variation
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📝 Aneuploidy & chromosomal rearrangements
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📝 Genetic variation in prokaryotes
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,
📝 Evolution of viruses
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,
Mutations
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,
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Biotechnology
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,
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📺 Introduction to genetic engineering
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📝 Intro to biotechnology
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📺 DNA cloning and recombinant DNA
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,
📝 Overview: DNA cloning
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,
📺 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
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📝 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
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,
📺 Gel electrophoresis
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,
📝 Gel electrophoresis
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,
📺 DNA sequencing
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📝 DNA sequencing
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📺 Applications of DNA technologies
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Biotechnology
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ContentStandards
Natural selection
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📺 Introduction to evolution and natural selection
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📺 Natural selection and the owl butterfly
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📺 Biodiversity and natural selection
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📺 Variation in a species
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📝 Darwin, evolution, & natural selection
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Natural selection
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Artificial selection
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📝 Evolution: Natural selection and human selection article
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📺 Artificial selection and domestication
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Artificial selection
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Population genetics
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📺 Genetic drift, bottleneck effect, and founder effect
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📝 Genetic drift
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📺 DNA spells evolution
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📺 Variation in a species
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📝 Natural selection in populations
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Population genetics
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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
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📺 Allele frequency
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📝 Allele frequency & the gene pool
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📺 Hardy-Weinberg equation
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📺 Applying the Hardy-Weinberg equation
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📺 Discussions of conditions for Hardy-Weinberg
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📝 Mechanisms of evolution
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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
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Evidence for evolution
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📺 Evidence for evolution
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📝 Evidence for evolution
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📺 Fossils: Rocking the Earth
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📺 Biogeography: Where life lives
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📺 Molecular evidence for evolutionary relationships examples
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📺 Carbon 14 dating 1
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Evidence of evolution
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Common ancestry and continuing evolution
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📺 Evidence for evolution
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📝 Evidence for evolution
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📺 Organelles in eukaryotic cells
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📝 Intro to eukaryotic cells
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📺 Cellular evidence of common ancestry
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📝 Evolution of viruses
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Common ancestry and continuing evolution
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Phylogeny
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📺 Taxonomy and the tree of life
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📺 Discovering the tree of life
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📺 Understanding and building phylogenetic trees
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📝 Phylogenetic trees
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📝 Building a phylogenetic tree
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Phylogeny
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Speciation
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📺 Species
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📺 Speciation
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📺 Reproductive isolation
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📺 New localities lead to new biodiversity
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📝 Species & speciation
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Speciation
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Extinction
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📺 Biodiversity and extinction, then and now
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📺 New localities lead to new biodiversity
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📝 A brief history of mass extinctions
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📝 Surviving an extinction level event
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Extinction
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Variations in populations
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📺 Introduction to evolution and natural selection
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📺 Variation in a species
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📺 Population diversity and resilience
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Variations in populations
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Origins of life on earth
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📺 Earth formation
📺 Beginnings of life
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📺 Origins of life
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📝 Hypotheses about the origins of life
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📺 The RNA origin of life
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📝 RNA world
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Origins of life on Earth
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ContentStandards
Responses to the environment
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📝 Intro to animal behavior
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📝 Innate behaviors
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📝 Learned behaviors
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📺 Animal communication
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