Current time:0:00Total duration:10:35

0 energy points

Studying for a test? Prepare with these 6 lessons on Exploring bivariate numerical data.

See 6 lessons

# Proof (part 1) minimizing squared error to regression line

Video transcript

In the last video, we showed
that the squared error between some line, y equals mx plus
b and each of these n data points is this expression
right over here. In this video, I'm really just
going to algebraically manipulate this expression so
that it's ready for the calculus stage. So we can actually optimize, we
can actually find the m and b values that minimize this
value right over here. So this is just going to be a
ton of algebraic manipulation. But I'll try to color code
it well so we don't get lost in the math. So let me just rewrite this
expression over here. So this whole video is just
going to be rewriting this over and over again. Just simplifying it a
bit with algebra. So this first term right over
here, y1 minus mx1 plus b squared, this is all going
to be the squared error of the line. So this first term over here,
I'll keep it in blue, is going to be if we just expand it, y1
squared minus 2 times y1 times mx1 plus b, plus mx1
plus b squared. All I did is I just squared
this binomial right here. You can imagine if this was a
minus b, it would be a squared minus 2ab plus b squared. That's all I did. Now I'll just have to do that
for each of the terms. And each term is only different by
the x and the y coordinates right over here. And I'll go down so that we
can kind of combine like terms. So this term over here
squared is going to be y2 squared minus 2 times
y2 times mx2 plus b plus mx2 plus b squared. Same exact thing up here. Except now it was with x2 and
y2, as opposed to x1 and y1. And then we're just going to
keep doing that n times. We're going to do it for the
third, x3, y3, keep going, keep going. All the way until we get the
this nth term over here. And this nth term over here when
we square it is going to be yn squared minus 2yn
times mxn plus b, plus mxn plus b squared. Now, the next thing I want to
do is actually expand these out a little bit more. So let's actually scroll down. So this whole expression, I'm
just going to rewrite it, is the same thing as-- and remember
this is just the squared error of the line. So let me rewrite this
top line over here. This top line over here
is y1 squared. And then I'm going to
distribute this 2y1. So this is going to be
minus 2y1mx1, that's just that times that. Minus 2y1b. And then plus, and now let's
expand mx1 plus b squared. So that's going to be m squared
x1 squared, plus 2 times mx1 times b
plus b squared. All I did, if was a plus b
squared, this is a squared plus 2ab plus b squared. And we're going to do that for
each of these terms. Or for each of these colors, I
guess you could say. So now let's move to
the second term. It's going to be
the same thing. But instead of y1's and
x1's, it's going to be y2's and x2's. So it is y2 squared minus
2y2mx2 minus 2y2b plus m squared x2 squared, plus 2 times
mx2b plus b squared. And we're going to keep
doing this all the way to get the nth term. I guess color we should say. So this is going to be yn
squared minus 2ynmxn. And you don't even
have to think. You just have to kind of
substitute these with n's now. We could actually
look at this. But it's going to be the
exact same thing. Minus 2ynb plus m squared
xn squared, plus 2mxnb plus b squared. So once again, this is just the
squared error of that line with n points. Between those n points and the
line y equals mx plus b. So let's see if we can simplify
this somehow. And to do that what I'm going to
do is I'm going to kind of try to add up a bunch
of these terms here. So if I were to add up all of
these terms right here, if I were to add up this
column right over there, what do I get? It's going to be y1 squared plus
y2 squared all the way to all the way to yn squared. That's those terms
right over there. So I'm going to have that. And then have this common
2m amongst all of these terms over here. So let me write that down. So then you have this 2m
here, 2m here, 2m here. Let me put parentheses
around here. So you have these terms
all added up. Then you have minus 2m times all
of these terms. Actually, let me color code it so you
see what we're doing. I want to be very careful
with this math so nothing seems too confusing. Although this is really just
algebraic manipulation. If I had all of these up, I get
y1 squared plus y2 squared all the way to yn squared. I'll put some parentheses
around that. And then to that, we have this
common term, we have this minus 2m, minus 2m, minus 2m. And so we can distribute
those out. And so I should actually
write it like this. So we have a minus 2m, once we
distribute it out up here, we're just going to be
left with a y1x1. Or maybe I can call
it an x1y1. That's that over there with
the 2m factored out. Let me do that in
another color. I want to make this
easy to read. Plus x2y2. Plus xnyn. Well we're going to keep adding
up-- we're going to do this n times. All the way to plus xnyn. This last term over here,
ynxn, same thing. So that's the sum. So this stuff over here, the sum
of all of this stuff right over here, is the same thing as
this term right over here. And then we have to sum
this right over here. And you see again, we can factor
out here a minus 2b out of all of these terms. So we
have minus 2b times y1 plus y2 plus all the way to to yn. So this business. These terms right over here,
when you add them up, give you these terms, or this term,
right over there. And let's just keep going. And in the next video, we're
probably going to run out of time in this one, I'll simplify
this more and clean up the algebra a good bit. So then the next term, what
is this going to be? Same drill. We can factor out
an m squared. So we have m squared times
times x1 squared plus x2 squared-- actually, I want to
color code them, I forgot to color code these over here. Plus all the way
to xn squared. Let me color code these. This was a yn squared. And this over here
was a y2 squared. So this is exactly this. So in this last step we just
did, this thing over here is this thing right over here. And of course we
have to add it. So I'll put a plus out front. We're almost done with this
stage of the simplification. So over here, we have a common
2mb, so let's put a plus 2mb times, once again, x1 plus x2
plus all the way to xn. So this term right over here
this is the exact same thing as this term over here. And then finally, we have a b
squared in each of these. And how many of these b
squared do we have? Well we have n of these
lines, right? This is the first line, second
line, then bunch, bunch, bunch all the way to the nth line. So we have b squared added
to itself n times. So this right over here is
just b squared n times. So we'll just write that as
plus n times b squared. Let me remind ourselves what
this is all about. This is all just algebraic
manipulation of the squared error between those n points
and the line y equals mx plus b. It doesn't look like I've
simplified it much. And I'm going to stop in
the video right now. In the next video, we're just
going to take off right here and try to simplify
this thing.