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## Basic geometry and measurement

# Reflecting shapes

Learn how to find the image of a given reflection.

In this article we will find the images of different shapes under different reflections.

## The line of reflection

A reflection is a transformation that acts like a mirror: It swaps all pairs of points that are on exactly opposite sides of the line of reflection.

The line of reflection can be defined by an equation or by two points it passes through.

## Part 1: Reflecting points

### Let's study an example of reflecting over a horizontal line

We are asked to find the image A, prime of A, left parenthesis, minus, 6, comma, 7, right parenthesis under a reflection over y, equals, 4.

#### Solution

**Step 1:**Extend a perpendicular line segment from A to the reflection line and measure it.

Since the reflection line is perfectly horizontal, a line perpendicular to it would be perfectly vertical.

**Step 2:**Extend the line segment in the same direction and by the same measure.

**Answer:**A, prime is at left parenthesis, minus, 6, comma, 1, right parenthesis.

### Your turn!

#### Practice problem

#### Challenge problem

### Let's study an example of reflecting over a diagonal line

We are asked to find the image C, prime of C, left parenthesis, minus, 2, comma, 9, right parenthesis under a reflection over y, equals, 1, minus, x.

#### Solution

**Step 1:**Extend a perpendicular line segment from C to the reflection line and measure it.

Since the reflection line passes exactly through the diagonals of the unit squares, a line perpendicular to it should pass through the other diagonal of the unit square. In other words,

*lines with slopes start text, 1, end text and start text, negative, 1, end text are always perpendicular.*For convenience, let's measure the distance in "diagonals":

**Step 2:**Extend the line segment in the same direction and by the same measure.

**Answer:**C, prime is at left parenthesis, minus, 8, comma, 3, right parenthesis.

### Your turn!

#### Practice problem

#### Challenge problem

## Part 2: Reflecting polygons

### Let's study an example problem

Consider rectangle E, F, G, H drawn below. Let's draw its image E, prime, F, prime, G, prime, H, prime under a reflection over the line y, equals, x, minus, 5.

#### Solution

When we reflect a polygon, all we need is to perform the reflection on all of the vertices (this is similar to how we translate or rotate polygons).

Here are the original vertices and their images. Notice that E, F, and H were on an opposite side of the reflection line as G. The same is true about their images, but now they switched sides!

Now we simply connect the vertices.

### Your turn!

#### Problem 1

#### Problem 2

## Want to join the conversation?

- I understand how to algebraically perform reflections if the line of reflection is y = 0, x = 0, y = x, or y = -x. How can I algebraically perform a reflection for ANY line of reflection (e.g. how could I reflect (2, 9) across y = 7x + 2 algebraically)?(20 votes)
- Great question!

Let A be the point to be reflected, let k be the line about which the point is reflected, let B represent the desired point (image), and let C represent the intersection of line k and line AB. Note that line AB must be perpendicular to line k, and C must be the midpoint of segment AB (from the definition of a reflection).

So we can first find the equation of the line through point A that is perpendicular to line k. Then we can algebraically find point C, which is the intersection of these two lines. Then, using the fact that C is the midpoint of segment AB, we can finally determine point B.

Example: suppose we want to reflect the point A(2,9) about the line k with equation y = 7x + 2. So we first find the equation of the line through (2,9) that is perpendicular to the line y = 7x + 2. Since the line y = 7x + 2 has slope 7, the desired line (that is, line AB) has slope -1/7 as well as passing through (2,9).

So the desired line has an equation of the form y = (-1/7)x + b. Substituting the point (2,9) gives

9 = (-1/7)(2) + b which gives b = 65/7. So the equation of this line is y = (-1/7)x + 65/7.

Now we need to find the intersection of the lines y = 7x + 2 and y = (-1/7)x + 65/7 by solving this system of equations.

Using the substitution method gives 7x + 2 = (-1/7)x + 65/7; (50/7)x = 51/7; x = 51/50.

Then y = 7(51/50) + 2 = 457/50.

So the intersection of the two lines is the point C(51/50, 457/50). Recall that A is the point (2,9).

Since C is the midpoint of AB, we have

B = C + (C - A) = (51/50 + 51/50 - 2, 457/50 + 457/50 - 9) = (1/25, 232/25).

So the image (that is, point B) is the point (1/25, 232/25).(51 votes)

- I do not understand any of this at all. Is there an easier way to learn/understand it?(28 votes)
- Simple reflections are a matter of looking at a line and a point, line, or polygon on one side of it. You want to figure out the distance between the two and take that point, line, or polygon and put it the distance away from the line, but on the opposite side. Also, the line from any point A to its image A' is perpendicular to the line of reflection. Hope this helps!(4 votes)

- I could really use Sal making a video about this, what’s written on this doc is really confusing.

Sometimes they explain things that are pretty basic and other times more complicated things they’ll just assume that we know them even though we haven’t covered it/them yet.

For instance I don’t understand what they mean when referring to the reflection line

Y=1-x

Y=x+2

Y= x-5(24 votes)- The reflection line is the line that you are reflecting over. Y=mx+b is just the basic slope-intercept equation. If you don't understand slope -intercept, I recommend watching the videos Khan provides in the algebra courses. Since geometry tends to be taught after algebra in some cases, I think it's why they didn't explain it more in depth. Hope this helps!(6 votes)

- Is there a formula for the reflections?(21 votes)
- count the spaces between the line you are reflecting over(5 votes)

- why cant there be a video on this i dont understand it but a video would help(11 votes)
- There is a part that says "I want to see Sal doing a similar question" which helped me since I was having trouble.(2 votes)

- Seriously, this math stumps me(10 votes)
- isn't there an algebraic formula for this ?(3 votes)
- When you reflect a point across the line y = x, the x-coordinate and y-coordinate change places. If you reflect over the line y = -x, the x-coordinate and y-coordinate change places and are negated (the signs are changed). the line y = x is the point (y, x). the line y = -x is the point (-y, -x).(10 votes)

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⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣄⠀⠀⠀⣸⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠁⣠⡄⠀⣿⢹⡇⢸⡀⠀⠈⠻⢿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿(6 votes) - This is a probably a stupid question, but i totally do not get why -- for example -- in this problem:

Draw the image of triangle MNO under a reflection over: y = -1 -x

I don't get what y = -1 -x means, is it a coordinate or is it comparing y to x, i just don't understand, same goes for the other problems:

What is the image of (-12, 12) under a reflection over line y = x. I can usually solve the problem, but i feel like i still need to understand what is means.(3 votes)- No questions are stupid! y=-1-x and y=x are both lines. When you reflect a point, it is an equal distance away from the line as your original point. For instance, (-12,12) reflected over y=x would be (12,-12). I hope this clears things up!(6 votes)

- can you please eplain reflection to me please again(3 votes)
- Reflection is taking an object and flipping it around over a line (which you could think of as a mirror).(4 votes)