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Current time:0:00Total duration:2:28

AP Calc: CHA‑4 (EU), CHA‑4.A (LO), CHA‑4.A.1 (EK), CHA‑4.A.2 (EK), CHA‑4.A.3 (EK), CHA‑4.A.4 (EK)

- [Instructor] What we're
gonna do in this video is introduce ourselves to the
notion of a definite integral and with indefinite
integrals and derivatives this is really one of
the pillars of calculus and as we'll see, they're all related and we'll see that more
and more in future videos and we'll also get a better appreciation for even where the notation of a definite integral comes from. So, let me draw some functions here and we're actually gonna
start thinking about areas under curves. So, let me draw a coordinate axes here, so that's my Y axis, this is my X axis, actually I'm gonna do two cases. So, this is my Y axis, this is my X axis and let's say I have some function here, so this F of X right over there and let's say that this is X equals A and let me draw a line
going straight up like that and let's say that this is X equals B, just like that and what we want to do
is concern ourselves with the area under the graph, under the graph of Y is equal to F of X and above the X axis and
between these two bounds, between X equals A and X equals B, so this area right over here and you can already get an appreciation. We're not used to finding areas where one of the boundaries
or as we'll see in the future, many of the boundaries
could actually be curves but that's one of the powers
of the definite integral and one of the powers
of integral calculus. And so, the notation for
this area right over here would be the definite integral and so, we're gonna have our
lower bound at X equals A, so we'll write it there, we'll have our upper bound at X equals B, right over there. We're taking the area
under the curve of F of X, F of X and then DX. Now, in the future we're going to, especially once we start
looking at Riemann sums, we'll get a better understanding of where this notation comes from. This actually comes from Leibniz, one of the founders of calculus. This is known as the summa symbol but for the sake of this video you just need to know
what this represents. This right over here, this represents the area under F of X between X equals A and X equals B. So, this value and this expression should be the same

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